Matching Items (4)

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Accountability in a Postdesegregation Era: The Continuing Significance of Racial Segregation

Description

In the wake of both the end of court-ordered school desegregation and the growing popularity of accountability as a mechanism to maximize student achievement, the authors explore the association between

In the wake of both the end of court-ordered school desegregation and the growing popularity of accountability as a mechanism to maximize student achievement, the authors explore the association between racial segregation and the percentage of students passing high-stakes tests in Florida's schools. Results suggest that segregation matters in predicting school-level performance on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test after control for other known and purported predictors of standardized test performance. Also, these results suggest that neither recent efforts by the state of Florida to equalize the funding of education nor current efforts involving high-stakes testing will close the Black-White achievement gap without consideration of the racial distribution of students across schools.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2004

Student AIMS performance in a predominately Hispanic district

Description

ABSTRACT School districts in the United States have undergone large changes over the last decade to accommodate No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Arizona accommodated NCLB through Arizona's Instrument to Measure

ABSTRACT School districts in the United States have undergone large changes over the last decade to accommodate No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Arizona accommodated NCLB through Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). Expectations were established for all students, varying by group of students based on grade, special education status, free/reduced lunch status, and English Language Learner (ELL) status. AIMS performance for subgroups has been scrutinized, due to the high stakes for schools and districts to meet expectations. This study is interested in the performance of ELL students, when compared with non-ELL students. The current study investigated AIMS performance of students in grades three through six from a large Arizona school district with predominantly low SES, Hispanic students. Approximately 90% of the students from this district were classified as ELL during their first year in the district. AIMS scores in Math and Reading were compared for ELL and non-ELL students across the years 2008, 2009, and 2010. Results suggest that there are differences in performance for ELL and non-ELL students, with ELL students scoring lower in both Math and Reading than non-ELL students. Additionally, ELL and non-ELL students showed similar performance across time in Math, with an increasing number of students Meeting or Exceeding the standards from year 2008 to 2009 for both ELL and non-ELL students. Student performance in Math for ELL and non-ELL students did not continue to improve from 2009 to 2010. On Reading performance, greater proportions of students scored as Meets or Exceeds across time for ELL students but not for non-ELL students. Non-ELL students scored at Meets or Exceeds at equal proportions across time, although non-ELL students scored at Meets or Exceeds in higher proportions than ELL students for all three years. Results suggest the need for continued research into the appropriateness of the AIMS for ELL students and more detailed comparisons of ELL and non-ELL students within and across districts with high proportions of ELL students.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Social class bias in evaluator commentaries for the AP language and composition exam (2000-2010), a critical discourse analysis

Description

This study is a discourse analysis and deconstruction of public documents published electronically in connection with the evaluation of the Advanced Placement Language and Composition Examination, found on the educational

This study is a discourse analysis and deconstruction of public documents published electronically in connection with the evaluation of the Advanced Placement Language and Composition Examination, found on the educational website: apcentral.collegeboard.com. The subject of this dissertation is how the characteristic of writing identified as Voice functions covertly in the calibration of raters' evaluation of student writing in two sets of electronic commentaries: the Scoring Commentaries and the Student Performance Q&A;'s published between the years 2000-2010. The study is intended to contribute to both socio-linguistic and sociological research in education on the influence of inherited forms of cultural capital in educational attainment, with particular emphasis upon performance on high-stakes examinations. Modeled after Pierre Bourdieu's inquiry into the latent bias revealed in the "euphemized" language of teacher commentary found in The State Nobility, lists of recurrent descriptors and binary oppositions in the texts are deconstructed. The result of the deconstruction is the manifestation of latent class bias in the commentaries. Conclusions: discourse analysis reveals that a particular Voice, expressive of a preferred social class identity, which is initiated to and particularly deft in such academic performances, is rewarded by the test evaluators. Similarly, findings reveal that a low-scoring essay is negatively critiqued for being particularly unaccustomed to the form(s) of knowledge and style of writing required by the test situation. In summation, a high score on the AP Language Examination, rather than a certification of writerly competence, is actually a testament to the performance of cultural capital. Following an analysis of the language of classification and assessment in the electronic documents, the author provides several "tactics" (after de Certeau) or recommendations for writing the AP Language and Composition Examination, conducive to the stylistic performances privileged by the rating system.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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An examination of bias in oral reading fluency: differential effects across race, gender, and socioeconomic status

Description

Recent legislation allowing educational agencies to use Response to Intervention (RTI) in determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, coupled with a focus on large-scale testing and accountability

Recent legislation allowing educational agencies to use Response to Intervention (RTI) in determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, coupled with a focus on large-scale testing and accountability resulted in the increasing use of curriculum based measurement (CBM) as a tool for understanding students' progress towards state standards, particularly in reading through the use of oral reading fluency measures. Extensive evidence of oral reading fluency's predictability of reading comprehension exists, but little research on differential effects across racial, gender, and socioeconomic subgroups is available. This study investigated racial, gender, and socioeconomic bias in DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DIBELS ORF) probes predictive and concurrent relationship with MAP reading comprehension scores for African American and Caucasian students. Participants were 834 second through fifth grade students in a school district located in a southeastern US state. The dataset consisted of student fall and spring DIBELS ORF scores and spring MAP reading comprehension scores. Concurrent correlation results between spring DIBELS ORF and MAP reading comprehension scores were moderate to large and statistically significant across all grades and demographic groups; however, correlations between fall DIBELS ORF and MAP reading comprehension scores were generally weak. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine the best variable, or combination of variables, in predicting MAP reading comprehension scores. Models differed for each grade level; however, spring DIBELS ORF scores were always included, whether alone or in combination with demographic variables, in the best prediction model. Potthoff's procedure was used to simultaneously test for slope and intercept differences among regression equations to determine if DIBELS ORF scores from fall and spring differentially predicted MAP reading comprehension scores across demographic groups. Nine of 24 simultaneous contrasts demonstrated a significant effect; seven were related to race, one was related to gender, and one was related to socioeconomic status. Racial bias in predicting MAP reading comprehension performance from spring DIBELS ORF was found. Differential prediction among gender and SES groups was not consistent indicating little to no practical significance. Results are discussed in the context of practical implications of differential validity, both predictive and concurrent, and potential impact on disproportionality.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013