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The Effects of Time Restricted Feeding on Mood

Description

Intermittent Fasting (IF) is defined as a cyclical eating pattern where an individual will fast for a specific increment of time, followed by caloric intake periods. Fasting is a crucial part of our ancestors’ adaptation to the stresses of famine

Intermittent Fasting (IF) is defined as a cyclical eating pattern where an individual will fast for a specific increment of time, followed by caloric intake periods. Fasting is a crucial part of our ancestors’ adaptation to the stresses of famine in order to maintain mental acuity and physical abilities during food deprivation. IF influences physiological changes such as: triggers protective metabolic pathways, increases metabolic flexibility and resilience, promotes DNA repair and autophagy, increases microbiome diversity and restores the natural cyclical fluctuations of the gut, increases BDNF expression in mood regulating neuronal circuits, and enhances synaptic plasticity of the brain. Research on the underlying causes of mood disorders has linked impairments in neuroplasticity and cellular resilience to this pathophysiology, which fasting could mitigate. Depression and anxiety are reported as the top impediments to academic performance. Thus, an easily implemented treatment such as intermittent fasting may be an option for combating impaired mental health in college students. This research study tested time restricted feeding (TRF) and its impact on mood states. It was hypothesized that: if college students follow a time restricted feeding pattern, then they will be less moody due to TRF’s effects on the metabolism, brain, and gut. The study consisted of 11 college students: 5 following a four-week adherence to TRF (8am-4pm eating window) and 6 in the control group. The POMS questionnaire was used to measure mood states. The participants height, weight, BMI, body fat %, and POMS scores were tested at the beginning and end of the 4 week intervention. The results were as follows: weight p=0.112 (statistical trend), BMI p=0.058 (nearly significant), body fat % p=0.114 (statistical trend), POMS p=0.014 (statistically significant). The data suggests that following a TRF eating pattern can decrease moodiness and improve mood states.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Examination of an Organometallic Complex on Insulin Resistance in Periadolescent Male Rats Following a 10-week High Fat Diet

Description

With the rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, novel treatments to help mitigate or prevent symptoms of these conditions are warranted. Prior studies have shown that fossilized plant materials found in soil lowers blood sugar in a mouse model of

With the rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, novel treatments to help mitigate or prevent symptoms of these conditions are warranted. Prior studies have shown that fossilized plant materials found in soil lowers blood sugar in a mouse model of diabetes. The goal of this study is to determine whether a similar organometallic complex (OMC) could prevent insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle brought on by chronic high fat intake by examining the protein expression of key enzymes in the insulin signaling pathway and examining glucoregulatory measures. Six-week-old periadolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=42) were randomly chosen to be fed either a high fat diet (HFD) (20% protein, 20% carbohydrates [6.8% sucrose], 60% fat) or a standard chow diet (18.9% protein, 57.33% carbohydrates, 5% fat) for 10 weeks. Rats from each diet group were then randomly assigned to one of three doses of OMC (0, 0.6, 3.0 mg/mL), which was added to their drinking water and fasting blood glucose was measured at baseline and again at 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, rats were euthanized, and soleus muscle samples were isolated, snap-frozen, and stored at -80°C until analyses. Fasting plasma glucose was measured using a commercially available glucose oxidase kit. Following 6 and 10 weeks, HFD rats developed significant hyperglycemia (p<0.001 and p=0.025) compared to chow controls which was prevented by high dose OMC (p=0.021). After 10 weeks, there were significant differences in fasting serum insulin between diets (p=0.009) where levels were higher in HFD rats. No significant difference was seen in p-PI3K expression between groups. These results suggest that OMC could prevent insulin resistance by reducing hyperglycemia. Further studies are needed to characterize the effects of diet and OMC on the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, the main site of postprandial glucose disposal. This study was supported by a grant from Isagenix International LLC as well as funds from Barrett, the Honors College at Arizona State University, Tempe Campus.

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Date Created
2018-12

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AMBROFIT: A Research-Driven Practicum in Nutritional Product Development

Description

Abstract Ambrofit is a company I founded in February 2014 whose overarching goal is to bridge the gap between science and supplements. This thesis project is as an extension of, and upgrade to, Ambrofit's work. The project begins with a

Abstract Ambrofit is a company I founded in February 2014 whose overarching goal is to bridge the gap between science and supplements. This thesis project is as an extension of, and upgrade to, Ambrofit's work. The project begins with a brief discussion of the supplement industry, motivating the problem which myself and Ambrofit are trying to solve. It addresses the shortcomings of the industry, its regulatory history, and the causal factors which create the industry's environment. As the main part of the project, I design and execute a systematic, evidence-based nutritional product formulation process to create an scientifically sound ergogenic aid which can reliably accelerate training adaptations. The methodology starts with a round of exploratory research to discover potential ingredients then systematically analyzes each ingredient in multiple rounds of effectiveness and safety screenings until the final formula can be synthesized. Ergogenics were the focus of this project because Ambrofit's current product is an ergogenic aid, but I will apply this same process to formulate Ambrofit's whole product line in the future. The second arm of the project is a clinical study protocol design - an evidence-based product created from secondary research is a good start, but ultimately, the formula must be validated by direct research. The protocol describes an 8-week study with well-trained subjects which would either support or reject the formula's ability to accelerate anaerobic training adaptations. The project concludes with a discussion and application of Ambrofit's marketing. This part of the project was done with boots-on-the-ground; Ambrofit is already operating commercially, so I was able test marketing ideas live and evaluate their performance.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Antiglycemic Properties of Mustard, a Condiment High in Vinegar

Description

According to the CDC, diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the U.S. and rates are continuing to rise nationally and internationally. Chronically elevated blood glucose levels can lead to type 2 diabetes and other complications. Medications can

According to the CDC, diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the U.S. and rates are continuing to rise nationally and internationally. Chronically elevated blood glucose levels can lead to type 2 diabetes and other complications. Medications can be used to treat diabetes, but often have side effects. Lifestyle and diet modifications can be just as effective as medications in helping to improve glycemic control, and prevent diabetes or improve the condition in those who have it. Studies have demonstrated that consuming vinegar with carbohydrates can positively impact postprandial glycemia in diabetic and healthy individuals. Continuous vinegar intake with meals may even reduce fasting blood glucose levels. Since vinegar is a primary ingredient in mustard, the purpose of this study was to determine if mustard consumption with a carbohydrate-rich meal (bagel and fruit juice) had an effect on the postprandial blood glucose levels of subjects. The results showed that mustard improved glycemia by 17% when subjects consumed the meal with mustard as opposed to the control. A wide variety of vinegars exists. The defining ingredient in all vinegars is acetic acid, behind the improvement in glycemic response observed with vinegar ingestion. Vinegar-containing foods range from mustard, to vinaigrette dressings, to pickled foods. The benefits of vinegar ingestion with carbohydrates are dose-dependent, meaning that adding even small amounts to meals can help. Making a conscious effort to incorporate these foods into meals, in addition to an overall healthy lifestyle, could provide an additional tool for diabetics and nondiabetics alike to consume carbohydrates in a healthier manner.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05

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An Examination of Fish Oil on Blood Clotting Times in Blood Types A and O

Description

Background. Research suggests that fish oil can be used as an intervention to increase clotting times and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Objective. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of fish oil supplementation on

Background. Research suggests that fish oil can be used as an intervention to increase clotting times and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Objective. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of fish oil supplementation on blood coagulation parameters in adults with blood type A (BTA) compared to blood type O (BTO) over an eight-week intervention.
Design. The study was a randomized, double-blind dietary intervention using healthy adults with blood types A or O. A total of 18 participants completed the study. Subjects were randomized into two groups: an experimental group (fish oil) made up of 7 BTO and 4 BTA adults, and a control group (coconut oil) made up of 4 BTO and 3 BTA adults. Non-fasting blood was drawn and analyzed for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and international normalized ratio (INR) at weeks 0 and 8. A food frequency questionnaire was completed at week 0, and anthropometric data collected at weeks 0 and 8.
Results. Baseline PTT results differed significantly between blood types, 28.1±1.4 seconds and 29.7±1.3 seconds for BTA and BTO respectively (p<0.05). Physical activity differed significantly between the experimental and control group at baseline, 53.9±26.8 METS and 86.0±41.9 METS, respectively (p<0.05). In the Fish oil group, prothrombin time increased for BTA vs. BTO, 0.18±0.29 seconds vs -0.11±0.31 seconds respectively (p<0.10indicating a statistical trend). There were no other differences between groups for the other outcome variables.
Conclusion. Fish oil supplementation prolonged clotting time in BTA adults and may be a useful strategy in this population for reducing cardiovascular disease risk. More research is needed to verify and expand these results.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

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Social Media Strategies to Increase Likes on Instagram

Description

Many individuals are not following healthy lifestyles as evidenced by the high obesity rates and poor physical activity levels. Many do not know how to eat healthy and exercise effectively, especially given busy schedules and no time to cook or

Many individuals are not following healthy lifestyles as evidenced by the high obesity rates and poor physical activity levels. Many do not know how to eat healthy and exercise effectively, especially given busy schedules and no time to cook or go to the gym. However, people do spend a significant amount of time on their mobile device using social media. This outlet can potentially be used to inspire and teach individuals how to cook healthy simple meals, or find motivation to get off the couch for some exercise. In this study, strategies were identified that would increase the comments, likes, and followers of the investigator's Instagrams, which were designed to motivate followers to live a healthier lifestyle. Initially, 462 posts were assessed retrospectively to determine how the number of likes and comments were influenced by hashtags, category of posts (nutrition, fitness, or inspiration), and/or type of app, PicPlayPost, Instaframe, and the updated Instagram. These results were used in a 1-month prospective study to increase likes and followers to the investigator's Instagrams. In the retrospective study, it was determined that hashtags influenced the number of comments and likes across the categories and that the PicPlayPost app increased the likes in all categories. Hence, for the prospective study, the investigator wrote 1 nutrition and 1 fitness post daily for 28 days using a minimum of 15 hashtags per post. In addition, 3 nutrition posts and 3 fitness posts per week used the PicPlayPost app. This posting strategy increased the number of likes per post by 100%, and the number of followers increased from 369 to 1082 in one month. Interestingly, the nutrition posts received 27% more likes than the fitness posts, and the PicPlayPost app increased comments by 134%. In conclusion, the use of hashtags, PicPlayPost, and Instaframe apps increased the likes and comments on social media. These strategies may increase audience's attention on a certain topic and be used to improve individuals' lifestyles.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

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College Cooking Habits

Description

There are two goals for this honors student project: (1) to determine (using an online survey) what college students do and do not know about cooking and preparing foods and (2) to video record short demonstrations of several cooking skills

There are two goals for this honors student project: (1) to determine (using an online survey) what college students do and do not know about cooking and preparing foods and (2) to video record short demonstrations of several cooking skills that college students lack the most based on survey responses. Ultimately, this project hopes to help students develop skills they can use in the kitchen to encourage more cooking at home and less eating out, dietary changes that should lead to more healthful meals and a healthier population. Links to cooking videos: https://youtu.be/ufsVYnfoCQM https://youtu.be/aZCIH33ebZ0

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05

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Asthma ICAM-1 2: The Effects of Vitamin C on s-ICAM Expression

Description

This study was conducted to observe the effects of vitamin C supplementation upon the expression of sICAM-1 in asthmatic subject. Two groups were created, each with a sample size of 4 subjects. One group was the vitamin C group (VC)

This study was conducted to observe the effects of vitamin C supplementation upon the expression of sICAM-1 in asthmatic subject. Two groups were created, each with a sample size of 4 subjects. One group was the vitamin C group (VC) and the other was the placebo group (PL). The study was analyzed through observing concentrations of biomolecules present within samples of blood plasma and nasal lavages. These included vitamin C, sICAM-1 expression, and histamine. The following P-values calculated from the data collected from this study. The plasma vitamin C screening was p=0.3, and after 18 days of supplementation, p=0.03. For Nasal ICAM p=0.5 at Day 0, p=0.4 at Day 4, and p=0.9 at Day 18. For the Histamine samples p=0.9 at Day 0 and p=0.9 at Day 18. The following P-values calculated from the data collected from both studies. The plasma vitamin C screening was p=0.8, and after 18 days of supplementation, p=0.03. The change of vitamin C at the end of this study and the combined data both had a P-value that was calculated to be lower than 0.05, which meant that this change was significant because it was due to the intervention and not chance. For Nasal ICAM samples p=0.7 at Day 0, p=0.7 at Day 4, and p=1 at Day 18. For the Histamine p=0.7 at Day 0 and p=0.9 at Day 18. This study carries various implications although the study data was unable to show much significance. This was the second study to test this, and as more research is done, and the sample size grows, one will be able to observe whether this really is the mechanism through which vitamin C plays a role in immunological functions.

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Date Created
2015-12

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Postprandial Glucose Responses to a High Glycemic Meal with Raw or Cooked Vegetables

Description

Early humans adapted to eating cooked food with increased energy density and absorption of macronutrients. However, in modern times many suffer from diseases like obesity and type 2 diabetes which can result from too much energy being absorbed from food.

Early humans adapted to eating cooked food with increased energy density and absorption of macronutrients. However, in modern times many suffer from diseases like obesity and type 2 diabetes which can result from too much energy being absorbed from food. This study measures glucose responses to a high glycemic meal with a side dish of raw or cooked vegetables. There was a slight trend for raw vegetables to have decreased postprandial blood glucose responses when compared to cooked vegetables.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

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Decoding Gluten Free: The Mystery Made Easy

Description

The purpose of this thesis is to create an informational book on gluten-free living. It is our hope that by the end of the book readers will have a better understanding that living with a gluten intolerance or auto-immune disorder

The purpose of this thesis is to create an informational book on gluten-free living. It is our hope that by the end of the book readers will have a better understanding that living with a gluten intolerance or auto-immune disorder does not control one's life. Someone just needs to put in a bit more planning and time in order to travel or eat out. The book goes into detail on every condition on the gluten-sensitivity spectrum. It also goes in-depth on medicines, recipes, and travel.

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Agent

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Date Created
2015-05