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Content Analysis of Existing Nutrition Marketing Materials in Central Arizona Schools

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The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the content of nutrition marketing materials within the cafeterias of schools in Central Arizona. By collecting photographs of marketing material from three elementary schools, one K-8 school, three middle schools

The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the content of nutrition marketing materials within the cafeterias of schools in Central Arizona. By collecting photographs of marketing material from three elementary schools, one K-8 school, three middle schools and three high schools, 59 pieces of nutrition marketing were gathered. The schools chosen were a convenience sample and selected from schools that were already participating in ASU' s School Lunch Study. The photographs were sorted by grade level and then coded quantitatively and qualitatively for their purpose, visual components, strategies used and relevance. Results from this novel study provided insight into prevalence, size, textual content, educational content, strategies for fruit and vegetable marketing, messaging and overall design of existing nutrition marketing within the sample schools. This study found that the prevalence of nutrition marketing within all school cafeterias appeared to be low, particularly within elementary and middle schools. Diverse types of messaging were present among elementary, middle and high schools and a variety of appeals were utilized with little consistency. Many of the strategies used in the nutrition marketing appeared disconnected from the population it was intended to appeal to. Educational components were notably lacking within middle school cafeterias but were often effectively integrated into high school nutrition marketing. The results are unique to this population, and further research is required to evaluate the content of existing nutrition material on a larger scale, so efforts can be made to improve the persuasiveness of nutrition marketing in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption.

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2018-12

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The Associations Between Food Insecurity, Weight Status and Emotional Eating

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The objective of this study was to access whether there were any associations between food insecurity, weight status and emotional eating for adults and youth, and to discover whether emotional eating was prevalent for both age groups. By gathering participants

The objective of this study was to access whether there were any associations between food insecurity, weight status and emotional eating for adults and youth, and to discover whether emotional eating was prevalent for both age groups. By gathering participants from six various low-income housing communities throughout the Phoenix, Arizona, the researchers were able to gather data from 114 participants, 57 adults and 57 youth. The participants were a convenience sample, and were recruited by flyers sent via the mail and door-to-door announcements in the spring and summer of 2014. The adult and youth were asked to complete a survey that was part of a larger study, which included the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire to access the participants' emotional eating. The participants' height and weight were measured manually and were integrated into the BMI system, and the participants' food insecurity statuses were validated using the US Household Food Security Survey. The results of the study illustrated associations between food insecurity and emotional eating for adults, but not for youth. In addition, there were no associations between adults' emotional eating and their child's emotional eating. The results from this study were consisted with the current research examining the associations of food insecurity and emotional eating, where there is only a correlation between food insecurity and emotional eating for adults. However, this study was not consistent with past research accessing the associations between adults' emotional eating and their child's emotional eating since this study found no relationship between the two. Being that a cross-sectional survey-based research was incorporated into this study, further research needs to explore on food insecurity, weight status and emotional eating to determine their causality.

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2015-12

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Social Connectedness and Fast Food Consumption in College Freshmen

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Attending college provides young adults with a major shift in environment from high school where many students are used to living at home with their parents or guardians. Students experience a newfound freedom once beginning their freshman year, especially if

Attending college provides young adults with a major shift in environment from high school where many students are used to living at home with their parents or guardians. Students experience a newfound freedom once beginning their freshman year, especially if living in on-campus housing. Freshmen are known to gain weight during this transitory period, and this has been partially attributed to changes in eating behaviors, which makes this a population of concern. College freshmen have significant autonomy over their food choices if not living at home, due to not having parents or guardians present. In the transition to college, freshmen are able to adopt new habits, healthy or unhealthy, which could make a large impact on their health habits for the rest of their lives; this is why the freshman population is an area of concern. RESULTS: None of the relationships between social connectedness and FF consumption were found to be statistically significant. Social connectedness was not significantly related to cross-sectional FF intake at the two different phases, or longitudinally between the two phases, even after adjustments were made. Additionally, there were no gender differences present in FF consumption or social connectedness at either phase. CONCLUSION: The lack of significant findings suggest that social connectedness might not be a reason college freshmen consume FF. Students might eat with others due to the convenience of living closely to them rather than as a means to socialize. Also, factors such as time constraints and cost might have played a larger role in why students consumed FF. Future research could involve similar studies using shorter questionnaires more tailored to eating behaviors, with more detailed measures of FF consumption (e.g. What specific FF meals did you consume?) and for a longer duration of time, to allow students to become more situated in their environment and have a better knowledge of all their food options. This study was an important contribution to the sparsely researched topic of social connectedness with a large and diverse sample studied longitudinally. It was also the only study of its kind to be performed on the college population, and had potential for future health implications in obesity and chronic conditions such as hypertension and type II diabetes. Further research is warranted to evaluate the relationship between social connectedness and other eating behaviors.

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2016-12

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Fit Minded College Edition: Pilot test of a magazine-based discussion group on physical activity in female college freshmen

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Objective: Fewer than 50% of female college freshmen meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. Innovative approaches that help college women increase their PA are warranted. The study purpose was to pilot test a magazine-based discussion group for improving PA, self-worth, and

Objective: Fewer than 50% of female college freshmen meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. Innovative approaches that help college women increase their PA are warranted. The study purpose was to pilot test a magazine-based discussion group for improving PA, self-worth, and nutrition behaviors in freshmen college females. Method: Thirty-seven women (18-20 years) were randomized to intervention (n=17) and control (n=20) groups. The intervention group participated in an 8-week magazine-based discussion group adapted from a previously tested social cognitive theory based intervention, Fit Minded. Excerpts from a popular women's health magazine were discussed during weekly meetings incorporating PA, self-worth and nutrition education. The control group did not attend meetings, but received the magazines. Outcomes and feasibility measures included: self-reported PA, general self-worth, knowledge self-worth, self-efficacy, social support, and daily fruits, vegetables, junk food, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Results: Twelve participants from the intervention group attended more than 75% of meetings. A time effect was observed for PA (p=0.001) and family social support (p=0.002). Time x group effects were observed for PA (p=0.001), general self-worth (p=0.04), knowledge self-worth (p=0.03), and daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (p=0.03), with the intervention group reporting greater increases in PA, general self-worth and knowledge self-worth and greater decreases in daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Although not significant, the intervention group demonstrated positive trends in self-efficacy, friend social support and fruit and veggie consumption as compared to the control group. Conclusion: A magazine-based discussion group may provide a promising platform to improve PA, self-worth and nutrition behaviors in female college freshmen.

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Date Created
2014-05

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The relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress in parents living in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

Description

Objectives Through a cross-sectional observational study, this thesis evaluates the relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress as it relates to predominantly Hispanic/Latino parents in Phoenix, Arizona.

Objectives Through a cross-sectional observational study, this thesis evaluates the relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress as it relates to predominantly Hispanic/Latino parents in Phoenix, Arizona. The purpose of this study was to address gaps in the literature by examining differences in "healthy" and "unhealthy" eating behaviors, foods available in the home, how time and low energy impact meal preparation, and the level of stress between food security groups. Methods Parents, 18 years or older, were recruited during two pre-scheduled health fairs, from English as a second language classes, or from the Women, Infants, and Children's clinic at a local community center, Golden Gate Community Center, in Phoenix, Arizona. An interview, electronic, or paper survey were offered in either Spanish or English to collect data on the variables described above. In addition to the survey, height and weight were collected for all participants to determine BMI and weight status. One hundred and sixty participants were recruited. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for weight status, education, race/ethnicity, income level, and years residing in the U.S., were used to assess the relationship between food security status and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress. Results Results concluded that food insecurity was more prevalent among parents reporting lower income levels compared to higher income levels (p=0.017). In adjusted models, higher perceived cost of fruits (p=0.004) and higher perceived level of stress (p=0.001) were associated with food insecurity. Given that the sample population was predominately women, a post-hoc analysis was completed on women only. In addition to the two significant results noted in the adjusted analyses, the women-only analysis revealed that food insecure mothers reported lower amounts of vegetables served with meals (p=0.019) and higher use of fast-food when tired or running late (p=0.043), compared to food secure mothers. Conclusion Additional studies are needed to further assess differences in stress levels between food insecure parents and food insecure parents, with special consideration for directionality and its relationship to weight status.

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2014

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Arizona foodshed: estimating capacity to meet fresh fruit and vegetable consumption needs of the Arizona population

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Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption continues to lag far behind US Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommendations. Interventions targeting individuals' dietary behaviors address only a small fraction of dietary influences. Changing the food environment by increasing availability of and excitement for

Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption continues to lag far behind US Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommendations. Interventions targeting individuals' dietary behaviors address only a small fraction of dietary influences. Changing the food environment by increasing availability of and excitement for FV through local food production has shown promise as a method for enhancing intake. However, the extent to which local production is sufficient to meet recommended FV intakes, or actual intakes, of specific populations remains largely unconsidered. This study was the first of its kind to evaluate the capacity to support FV intake of Arizona's population with statewide production of FV. We created a model to evaluate what percentage of Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommendations, as well as actual consumption, state-level FV production could meet in a given year. Intake and production figures were amended to include estimates of only fresh, non-tropical FV. Production was then estimated by month and season to illustrate fluctuations in availability of FV. Based on our algorithm, Arizona production met 184.5% of aggregate fresh vegetable recommendations, as well as 351.9% of estimated intakes of Arizonans, but met only 29.7% of recommended and 47.8% of estimated intake of fresh, non-tropical fruit. Much of the excess vegetable production can be attributed to the dark-green vegetable sub-group category, which could meet 3204.6% and 3160% of Arizonans' aggregated recommendations and estimated intakes, respectively. Only minimal seasonal variations in the total fruit and total vegetable categories were found, but production of the five vegetable sub-groups varied between the warm and cool seasons by 19-98%. For example, in the starchy vegetable group, cool season (October to March) production met only 3.6% of recommendations, but warm season (April to November) production supplied 196.5% of recommendations. Results indicate that Arizona agricultural production has the capacity to meet a large proportion of the population's FV needs throughout much of the year, while at the same time remaining a major producer of dark-green vegetables for out-of-state markets.

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2013

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Parent outcomes for a family-based behavioral nutrition and physical activity program: the Athletes for Life study

Description

Background: Latinos have disproportionately high rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Family-based interventions may reduce chronic disease risk among Latinos across generations.

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Athletes for Life (AFL), a 12-week community-and-family-based behavioral intervention, for improving

Background: Latinos have disproportionately high rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Family-based interventions may reduce chronic disease risk among Latinos across generations.

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Athletes for Life (AFL), a 12-week community-and-family-based behavioral intervention, for improving diet, physical activity (PA), anthropometrics, fitness, and biochemical outcomes among mostly Latino parents.

Methods: Parents with at least one child 6-11 years of age were randomized to active AFL participation (n=14) or a wait-list control (n=14) group. AFL consisted of twice weekly 90 minute sessions (45 minutes of nutrition-focused lessons and 45 minutes of PA participation) designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption, reduction of sugar intake, and increasing habitual PA. Data were collected prior to and immediately after the 12 week intervention.

Results: Participants (37.9±7.2y) were mostly Latino (93%), Spanish speaking (68%), and women (93%). Relative to participants in the control group, AFL participants had a significant reduction in body fat (-1.1±1.2% vs. 0.2±1.2%; p=0.014), resting (-7.6±10.2 bpm vs. +2.1±6.8 bpm; p<0.01), exercise (-8.4±8.7 bpm vs. +0.4±7.3 bpm; p<0.01), and recovery heart rate (-11.9±12.8 bpm vs. -0.3±11.4 bpm; p=0.01), and one mile run time (-1.5±1.0 min vs. -0.1±0.9 min; p<0.01), and a significant increase in estimated VO2 peak (+1.9±1.9 ml/kg/min vs. 0.0±1.8 ml/kg/min; p=0.01). AFL participants also reported an increase in the number of days/week accumulating 30 minutes of MVPA (+0.8±3.2 vs. -1.5±2.3; p=0.004) and daily servings of fruits (+1.3±1.4 vs. +0.3±1.4; p<0.05) and vegetables (+1.8±1.7 vs. +0.1±1.2; p<0.05), relative to control participants. There were no significant differences between groups in changes in diet assessed by 3-day food record, accelerometer-measured PA, weight, blood pressure, visceral fat, biomarkers for cardiovascular disease or nutritional biomarkers.

Conclusions: Despite the lack of effects on diet and PA behaviors, AFL shows promising preliminary efficacy for reducing body fat and improving fitness among adult participants. Future research aimed at improving fitness among Latino parents with family-based intervention is warranted.

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Date Created
2015

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Validating a laser for measuring supine and standing heights against current measures in adults

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The stadiometer is the gold standard human height measure, but recent studies have begun to question whether laser technology is a better tool to measure height. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the laser device has inter-rater

The stadiometer is the gold standard human height measure, but recent studies have begun to question whether laser technology is a better tool to measure height. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the laser device has inter-rater reliability, how the laser-device measures supine height in comparison to standard methods, and if the laser device will be consistent in measuring human height shorter, as seen in previous studies. Two investigators measured a total of 80 adults independently. Measurements included knee height, arm span, demi span, supine height by laser, standing height by laser and standing height by stadiometer. There was a strong inter-rater reliability for the laser height measurement: excluding one outlier r=0.998. Supine height measures done with a laser were strongly correlated with arm span, but mean values were closest between supine height and knee height (171.3cm and 171.2cm). The laser measured standing height 0.5cm shorter, on average, than the stadiometer. It is concluded that the laser device is a reliable, validated tool to measure human height, standing or supine.

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Date Created
2016

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Home food environment and dietary intake: a 12-week intervention randomized control trial in south Phoenix adults

Description

Although many studies have looked into the relationship between home food availability and dietary intake, few have assessed actual change in the home food environment as a result of an intervention program. This secondary data analysis of the Athletes for

Although many studies have looked into the relationship between home food availability and dietary intake, few have assessed actual change in the home food environment as a result of an intervention program. This secondary data analysis of the Athletes for Life 3 (AFL3) program investigated the efficacy of a randomized controlled 12-week community-based, family-focused exercise and dietary behavior intervention program in improving the home food environment of families with children between the ages of 6 and 11 years old. A total of twenty-six adults from Phoenix, Arizona allowed research staff into their homes to assess variety of food availability, using a modified version of the Home Food Inventory and were randomized to either the AFL3 program or wait-list control group. The main outcomes of interest were change in availability of vegetables, fruits, sugar-sweetened beverages and desserts and WIC-approved breakfast cereal. There was a significant increase in the number of vegetable items (3.88 ± 0.85; p=0.006) and WIC-approved cereal items (1.16 ± 0.31; p=0.003) in the homes of the intervention participants, relative to the wait-list control group. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in the number of sugar-sweetened beverage items (1.18 ± 0.31; p=0.014) available in wait-list control participant homes. There were no other significant findings related to home food availability. Furthermore, dietary intake among adult participants did not significantly change as a result of change in home availability. In conclusion, the AFL3 intervention program was successful in eliciting small but significant changes at a household level related to vegetable and WIC-approved breakfast cereal availability.

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Date Created
2016

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The associations among emotions and food choices in college freshmen: a cross-sectional study using ecological momentary assessment

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While literature has examined the associations between emotions and overeating, rarely is the relationship between emotions and food choices included. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to utilize mobile-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys to determine the associations

While literature has examined the associations between emotions and overeating, rarely is the relationship between emotions and food choices included. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to utilize mobile-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys to determine the associations among negative, positive, apathetic, and mixed emotions and a variety of food choices in college freshmen living in residence halls. A total of 2142 survey responses from 647 college freshmen were included in this analysis (70.3% female, 51.5% non-white). Mixed model logistic regression assessed the cross-sectional association between emotions and food choices adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, Pell grant status, highest parental education, and the clustering of repeated measures within person and of students within residence hall. There were no significant associations between negative emotions and food choices. Positive emotions were significantly and inversely associated with eating pizza/fast food (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.5, 0.8) and cereals (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.4, 1.0), while apathetic emotions were significantly and positively associated with consuming salty snacks/fried foods (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.1, 2.5) and inversely associated with consuming sandwiches/wraps (OR=0.5; 95% CI=0.3, 0.8) and meats/proteins (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.4, 1.0). It was also found that there were several instances of surveys with mixed emotions, in which participants reported feeling two conflicting emotions at once (i.e. positive and negative). Mixed emotions were significantly associated with consuming sweets (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.2, 2.1), meats/proteins (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.2, 2.0), and cereals (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2, 2.9). Understanding the relationships between different types of emotions and food choices is helpful in understanding the motivation behind healthy versus unhealthy food choices. These findings can be used to develop interventions that encourage positive emotions in college freshmen to better promote healthy food choices and ultimately reduce the risk of weight gain and other health disparities. Future research should examine how college freshmen differ from other college students (i.e. upper classmen and graduate students), particularly related to their emotions and food choices, so that dietary interventions can be better suited to those who are vulnerable.

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Date Created
2016