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Content Analysis of Existing Nutrition Marketing Materials in Central Arizona Schools

Description

The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the content of nutrition marketing materials within the cafeterias of schools in Central Arizona. By collecting photographs of marketing material from three elementary schools, one K-8 school, three middle schools

The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the content of nutrition marketing materials within the cafeterias of schools in Central Arizona. By collecting photographs of marketing material from three elementary schools, one K-8 school, three middle schools and three high schools, 59 pieces of nutrition marketing were gathered. The schools chosen were a convenience sample and selected from schools that were already participating in ASU' s School Lunch Study. The photographs were sorted by grade level and then coded quantitatively and qualitatively for their purpose, visual components, strategies used and relevance. Results from this novel study provided insight into prevalence, size, textual content, educational content, strategies for fruit and vegetable marketing, messaging and overall design of existing nutrition marketing within the sample schools. This study found that the prevalence of nutrition marketing within all school cafeterias appeared to be low, particularly within elementary and middle schools. Diverse types of messaging were present among elementary, middle and high schools and a variety of appeals were utilized with little consistency. Many of the strategies used in the nutrition marketing appeared disconnected from the population it was intended to appeal to. Educational components were notably lacking within middle school cafeterias but were often effectively integrated into high school nutrition marketing. The results are unique to this population, and further research is required to evaluate the content of existing nutrition material on a larger scale, so efforts can be made to improve the persuasiveness of nutrition marketing in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption.

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Created

Date Created
2018-12

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Effect of a Wii Fit® intervention on balance, muscular fitness, and bone health in middle-aged women

Description

Sustaining a fall can be hazardous for those with low bone mass. Interventions exist to reduce fall-risk, but may not retain long-term interest. "Exergaming" has become popular in older adults as a therapy, but no research has been done on

Sustaining a fall can be hazardous for those with low bone mass. Interventions exist to reduce fall-risk, but may not retain long-term interest. "Exergaming" has become popular in older adults as a therapy, but no research has been done on its preventative ability in non-clinical populations. The purpose was to determine the impact of 12-weeks of interactive play with the Wii Fit® on balance, muscular fitness, and bone health in peri- menopausal women. METHODS: 24 peri-menopausal-women were randomized into study groups. Balance was assessed using the Berg/FICSIT-4 and a force plate. Muscular strength was measured using the isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/180°/240°/sec and endurance was assessed using 50 repetitions at 240°/sec. Bone health was tracked using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the hip/lumbar spine and qualitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel. Serum osteocalcin was assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Physical activity was quantified using the Women's Health Initiative Physical Activity Questionnaire and dietary patterns were measured using the Nurses' Health Food Frequency Questionnaire. All measures were repeated at weeks 6 and 12, except for the DXA, which was completed pre-post. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in diet and PA between groups. Wii Fit® training did not improve scores on the Berg/FICSIT-4, but improved center of pressure on the force plate for Tandem Step, Eyes Closed (p-values: 0.001-0.051). There were no significant improvements for muscular fitness at any of the angular velocities. DXA BMD of the left femoral neck improved in the intervention group (+1.15%) and decreased in the control (-1.13%), but no other sites had significant changes. Osteocalcin indicated no differences in bone turnover between groups at baseline, but the intervention group showed increased bone turnover between weeks 6 and 12. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that WiiFit® training may improve balance by preserving center of pressure. QUS, DXA and osteocalcin data confirm that those in the intervention group were experiencing more bone turnover and bone formation than the control group. In summary, twelve weeks of strength /balance training with the Wii Fit® shows promise as a preventative intervention to reduce fall and fracture risk in non-clinical middle aged women who are at risk.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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Usability of a Digital Plate Waste Observation System for the School Lunch Study

Description

With the development of technology, using photographs to measure plate waste is an increasing
trend. These photographs are later analyzed when the data is being entered into a form or
system. Previously, these forms or systems have not been assessed

With the development of technology, using photographs to measure plate waste is an increasing
trend. These photographs are later analyzed when the data is being entered into a form or
system. Previously, these forms or systems have not been assessed for usability. This research
study looks at three iterations of a digital plate waste observation system developed for the
School Lunch Study at Arizona State University. The System Usability Scale was used to
understand the functionality of the digital plate waste observation system. An area for free
responses was used to understand aspects of the system that were liked by research assistants
and what technical difficulties the research assistants encountered. These responses were used to
develop the next version of the digital plate waste observation system. Time to complete a task
was calculated to see the trends across all versions of the system. With each version, the System
Usability Scale scores increased along with the time to complete a task. This study found that
following the workflow of research assistants, being able to manipulate a photograph, having
menu items populated, and decreasing the amount of typing performed by adding selections to be
useful design aspects. Future digital plate waste observation systems can implement the
successful design aspects of this system, be aware of errors experienced, and implement helpful
features not found in this system. Future studies can look at the effect proctored training sessions
have on the time to complete a task and the relation of System Usability Scale scores with the
success of data entry.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-12

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Use of a non-invasive acoustical monitoring system to predict ad libitum eating events

Description

Obesity is currently a prevalent health concern in the United States. Essential to combating it are accurate methods of assessing individual dietary intake under ad libitum conditions. The acoustical monitoring system (AMS), consisting of a throat microphone and jaw strain

Obesity is currently a prevalent health concern in the United States. Essential to combating it are accurate methods of assessing individual dietary intake under ad libitum conditions. The acoustical monitoring system (AMS), consisting of a throat microphone and jaw strain sensor, has been proposed as a non-invasive method for tracking free-living eating events. This study assessed the accuracy of eating events tracked by the AMS, compared to the validated vending machine system used by the NIDDK in Phoenix. Application of AMS data toward estimation of mass and calories consumed was also considered. In this study, 10 participants wore the AMS in a clinical setting for 24 hours while all food intake was recorded by the vending machine. Results indicated a correlation of 0.76 between number of eating events by the AMS and the vending machine (p = 0.019). A dependent T-test yielded a p-value of 0.799, illustrating a lack of significant difference between these methods of tracking intake. Finally, number of seconds identified as eating by the AMS had a 0.91 correlation with mass of intake (p = 0.001) and a 0.70 correlation with calories of intake (p = 0.034). These results indicate that the AMS is a valid method of objectively recording eating events under ad libitum conditions. Additional research is required to validate this device under free-living conditions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Barriers to introducing salad bars among schools in Arizona: a cross sectional study across school levels

Description

Salad bars are promoted as a means to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among school-age children; however, no study has assessed barriers to having salad bars. Further, it is not known if barriers differ across school level. This cross-sectional study

Salad bars are promoted as a means to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among school-age children; however, no study has assessed barriers to having salad bars. Further, it is not known if barriers differ across school level. This cross-sectional study investigated the barriers to having salad bars across school level among schools without salad bars in Arizona (n=177). Multivariate binominal regression models were used to determine differences between the barriers and school level, adjusting for years at current job, enrollment of school, free-reduced eligibility rate and district level clustering. The top five barriers were not enough staff (51.4%), lack of space for salad bars (49.7%), food waste concerns (37.9%), sanitation/food safety concerns (31.3%), and time to get through the lines (28.3%) Adjusted analyses indicated two significant differences between barriers across school level: time to get through lines (p=0.040) and outside caterer/vendor (p=0.018) with time to get through lines reported more often by elementary and middle school nutrition managers and outside caterer/vendor reported most often by high school nutrition managers. There were several key barriers reported and results indicate that having an outside vendor/caterer for their meal programs and time to get through the service lines varied across school level. High schools report a higher percent of the barrier outside caterer/vendors and elementary and middle schools report a higher percent of the barrier time to get through the lines. Results indicate that research determining the approximate time it takes students to get through salad bar lines will need to be considered. More research is needed to determine if the barrier time to get through the service lines is due to selection of food items or if it is due to the enrollment size of the lunch period. Future research interventions may consider investigating food safety and sanitation concerns of middle school nutrition managers. Findings may be used to guide ways to decrease barriers in schools without salad bars.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

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Understanding How Nutrition is Promoted to Children in Schools: Content Analysis of Nutrition Marketing in Arizona School Cafeterias

Description

Objective: To conduct a content analysis of nutrition marketing in school cafeterias in Arizona to understand how nutrition concepts are currently marketed to students. This is the first study to investigate the content of nutrition marketing in school cafeterias, and

Objective: To conduct a content analysis of nutrition marketing in school cafeterias in Arizona to understand how nutrition concepts are currently marketed to students. This is the first study to investigate the content of nutrition marketing in school cafeterias, and also the first to compare content across elementary, middle, and high schools. Methods: Photographs of marketing materials on display in school cafeterias were obtained from a convenient sample of 13 elementary schools, 12 middle schools, and 12 high schools. In total, n=284 examples of nutrition marketing were collected. The photographs were sorted by grade level and then coded quantitatively and qualitatively based on their purpose, visual aspects, marketing strategies used, and language and literacy aspects. Given the multiple comparisons, statistical significance was assessed with a Bonferroni adjustment of p<0.0006.
Results: The average number of nutrition marketing materials within the school cafeterias was 7.7 ± 7.2. The purpose of the marketing materials ranged from promoting selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables, promoting nutrition and physical activity together, food safety, and educating about healthy eating. The sample of nutrition marketing materials emphasized selecting F/Vs over consumption of F/Vs. However, the opposite was found in marketing that exclusively promoted fruits and vegetables. The most common type of marketing in school cafeterias were flyers and most of the materials were small in size. The sample demonstrated a lack of implementation of marketing appeals in half of the sample, but the half that did utilized techniques that are known to be appealing to child and adolescent demographics, such as use of cartoons, humor, and social media/websites. 98.9% of the nutrition marketing with text were written in English and only 1.1% of the materials (n=3) were written in Spanish.
Conclusion: The nutrition marketing sample demonstrated some use of social marketing principles but does not compete with the scale and scope of the child-directed food and beverage marketing that students encounter in their environment. More research is needed to better understand how to best target nutrition marketing to child and adolescent student populations.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2021

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Cut vs Whole Fruit and Vegetable Selection, Consumption, and Waste in K12 School Lunch

Description

Objective: Increasing fruit/vegetable (FV) consumption and decreasing waste during the school lunch is a public health priority. Understanding how serving style of FV impacts FV consumption and waste may be an effective means to changing nutrition behaviors in schools. This

Objective: Increasing fruit/vegetable (FV) consumption and decreasing waste during the school lunch is a public health priority. Understanding how serving style of FV impacts FV consumption and waste may be an effective means to changing nutrition behaviors in schools. This study examined whether students were more likely to select, consume, and waste FV when FVs were cut vs. whole. Methods: Baseline data from the ASU School Lunch Study was used to explore associations between cut vs. whole FV serving style and objectively measured FV selection, consumption, and waste and grade level interactions among a random selection of students (n=6804; 47.8% female; 78.8% BIPOC) attending Arizona elementary, middle, and high schools (N=37). Negative binomial regression models evaluated serving style on FV weight (grams) selected, consumed, and wasted, adjusted for sociodemographics and school.
Results: Students were more likely to select cut FVs (IRR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) and waste cut FVs (IRR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.39); however, no differences were observed in the overall consumption of cut vs. whole FVs. Grade-level interactions impacted students’ selection of FVs. Middle school students had a significantly higher effect modification for the selection of cut FVs (IRR=1.18; p=0.006) compared to high school and elementary students. Further, high school students had a significantly lower effect modification for the selection of cut FVs (IRR=0.83; p=0.010) compared to middle and elementary students. No other grade-level interactions were observed.
Discussion: Serving style of FV may impact how much FV is selected and wasted, but further research is needed to determine causality between these variables.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2021

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The community food environment's influence on dietary behaviors

Description

Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Dietary behaviors influence the risk of developing multiple chronic diseases. The U.S. population consumes too few fruits and vegetables and too much sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast

Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Dietary behaviors influence the risk of developing multiple chronic diseases. The U.S. population consumes too few fruits and vegetables and too much sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast food. The Social Ecological Model (SEM) was created as a framework for health promotion interventions. The SEM organizes factors that can influence health into five layers: intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes, institutional/organizational factors, community factors, and public policy. Each layer can influence dietary behaviors and other layers.

This work aims to understand how the community layer, represented by the food environment, moderates the association of two other layers and dietary behaviors: the interpersonal layer, represented by receiving health care provider’s (HCP) advice to lose weight, and the policy layer, represented by participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and a policy change within the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).

Participant data were obtained from a household telephone survey of 2,211 adults in four cities in New Jersey from two cross-sectional panels in 2009-10 and 2014. Community food data were purchased and classified according to previously established protocol. Interaction and stratified analyses determined the differences in the association between HCP advice, SNAP participation, and time (for WIC participants) and eating behaviors by the food environment.

Interaction and stratified analyses revealed that HCP advice was associated with a decrease in SSB consumption when participants lived near a small grocery store, or far from a supermarket, limited service restaurant (LSR), or convenience store. SNAP participation was associated with a higher SSB consumption when respondents lived close to a small grocery store, supermarket, and LSR. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between two time points among WIC participants, or by food outlet.

The food environment, part of the community layer of SEM, moderated the relationship between the interpersonal layer and dietary behaviors and the policy layer and dietary behaviors. The association between HCP advice and dietary behaviors and SNAP participation and dietary behaviors were both influenced by the food environment in which participants lived.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

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First year students' meal plans and dining hall use: differences by food insecurity, and similarities among roommates

Description

Background In the United States (US), first-year university students typically live on campus and purchase a meal plan. In general, meal plans allow the student a set number of meals per week or semester, or unlimited meals. Understanding how students’

Background In the United States (US), first-year university students typically live on campus and purchase a meal plan. In general, meal plans allow the student a set number of meals per week or semester, or unlimited meals. Understanding how students’ use their meal plan, and barriers and facilitators to meal plan use, may help decrease nutrition-related issues.

Methods First-year students’ meal plan and residence information was provided by a large, public, southwestern university for the 2015-2016 academic year. A subset of students (n=619) self-reported their food security status. Logistic generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to determine if meal plan purchase and use were associated with food insecurity. Linear GEEs were used to examine several potential reasons for lower meal plan use. Logistic and Linear GEEs were used to determine similarities in meal plan purchase and use for a total of 599 roommate pairs (n=1186 students), and 557 floormates.

Results Students did not use all of the meals available to them; 7% of students did not use their meal plan for an entire month. After controlling for socioeconomic factors, compared to students on unlimited meal plans, students on the cheapest meal plan were more likely to report food insecurity (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.2, 4.1). In Fall, 26% of students on unlimited meal plans reported food insecurity. Students on the 180 meals/semester meal plan who used fewer meals were more likely to report food insecurity (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.8, 1.0); after gender stratification this was only evident for males. Students’ meal plan use was lower if the student worked a job (β=-1.3, 95% CI=-2.3, -0.3) and higher when their roommate used their meal plan frequently (β=0.09, 99% CI=0.04, 0.14). Roommates on the same meal plan (OR=1.56, 99% CI=1.28, 1.89) were more likely to use their meals together.

Discussion This study suggests that determining why students are not using their meal plan may be key to minimizing the prevalence of food insecurity on college campuses, and that strategic roommate assignments may result in students’ using their meal plan more frequently. Students’ meal plan information provides objective insights into students’ university transition.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

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Differences in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Children Related to Serving Container Color

Description

Background: Children’s fruit and vegetable consumption in the United States is lower than recommended. School lunch is an opportunity for students to be exposed to fruits and vegetables and potentially increase their daily intake. The purpose of this study is

Background: Children’s fruit and vegetable consumption in the United States is lower than recommended. School lunch is an opportunity for students to be exposed to fruits and vegetables and potentially increase their daily intake. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between tray color and fruit and vegetable selection, consumption, and waste at lunch.

Methods: Study participants (n=1469) were elementary and middle school students who ate school lunch on the day of data collection. Photographs and weights (to nearest 2 g) were taken of fruits and vegetables on students’ trays before and after lunch. Trained research assistants viewed photographs and sorted trays into variable categories: color of main tray, presence/absence of secondary fruit/vegetable container, and color of secondary fruit/vegetable container. Fruit and vegetable selection, consumption, and waste were calculated using tray weights. Negative binomial regression models adjusted for gender, grade level, race/ethnicity, free/reduced price lunch status, and within-school similarities were used to examine relationships between tray color and fruit and vegetable selection, consumption, and waste.

Results: Findings indicated that students with a light tray selected (IRR= 0.44), consumed (IRR=0.73) and wasted (IRR=0.81) less fruit and vegetables. Students without a secondary fruit/vegetable container selected (IRR=0.66) and consumed (IRR=0.49) less fruit and vegetables compared to those with a secondary container. Light or clear secondary fruit and vegetable containers were related to increased selection (IRR=2.06 light, 2.30 clear) and consumption (IRR=1.95 light, 2.78 clear) compared to dark secondary containers, while light secondary containers were related to decreased waste (IRR= 0.57).

Conclusion: Tray color may influence fruit and vegetable selection, consumption, and waste among students eating school lunch. Further research is needed to determine if there is a cause and effect relationship. If so, adjusting container colors may be a practical intervention for schools hoping to increase fruit and vegetable intake among students.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2020