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Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) Did Not Improve Depression in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms after ACT and Voluntary Cycling (VC). However, we predicted there would be a greater improvement in depressive symptoms after ACT in comparison to VC. Depression was measured using a modified version of the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2) due to the low mental age of our participant population. Twenty-one older adults with DS were randomly assigned to one of three interventions, which took place over an eight-week period of time. Eleven older adults with DS completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling on a recumbent bicycle with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than the rate of voluntary cycling. Nine participants completed the voluntary cycling intervention, where they cycled at a cadence of their choosing. One participant composed our no cycling control group. No intervention group reached results that achieved a conventional level of significance. However, there was a trend for depression to increase after 8 weeks throughout all three intervention groups. We did see a slightly slower regression of depression in the ACT group than the VC and control. Our results were discussed with respect to social and cognitive factors relevant to older adults with DS and the subjective nature of the CDI2. This study brings attention to the lack of accurate measures and standardized research methods created for populations with intellectual disabilities in regards to research.

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2018-05

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Eat In, Not Out: A Comparative Analysis Between at Home Cooking and Restaurant Dining

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This creative project seeks to demonstrate the nutritional and financial benefits of cooking in versus eating out to college age students. We sought to determine what factors significantly differentiated restaurant meals versus home-cooked versions, and how we could share this

This creative project seeks to demonstrate the nutritional and financial benefits of cooking in versus eating out to college age students. We sought to determine what factors significantly differentiated restaurant meals versus home-cooked versions, and how we could share this information with our peers to potentially influence them to make a healthy lifestyle change. The first step was to determine the factors that influence college-aged students eating habits, and was presented with a review of relevant literature in several topics. We researched food literacy in young adults, the impact of fast food, social media's role in healthy eating habits, health behavior change in young adults, and the benefits of home cooking to obtain a general baseline of the knowledge of college-aged students. The initial research was utilized to write more effective blog posts that appropriately addressed our targeted demographic and to determine what platforms would be most appropriate to convey our information. These ideas were taken and then translated into a blog and Instagram account that contained healthy, copycat recipes of popular restaurant meals. We wrote 30 blog posts which were made up of 20 original recipes, 8 nutrition informational posts, and an introduction/conclusion. Finally, a focus group was hosted to ascertain the opinions of our peers, and to determine if they would be willing to make a lifestyle change in the form of cooking more frequently as opposed to eating out regularly. We provided them with a pre and post survey to gather their opinions before and after reviewing the findings of our research and project. We concluded that if given the information in an accessible way, college students are willing to eat in, not out.

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2018-05

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Targeting the Prefrontal Cortex with Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) to Improve Sleep in Adult Down Syndrome (DS) Populations

Description

Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) display significantly earlier symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) beginning around age 35. Because AD-like symptoms tend to be ever present in those with DS, it is difficult to accurately evaluate those with DS for earlier

Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) display significantly earlier symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) beginning around age 35. Because AD-like symptoms tend to be ever present in those with DS, it is difficult to accurately evaluate those with DS for earlier onset of AD. It has been suggested that physical activity and sleep are potential measures to monitor for manifestations of early AD-like symptoms in people with DS. Our lab has previously shown remarkable improvements in physical activity, cognition, and motor control while using Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) for adolescents with DS, Parkinson's disease (PD), and stroke populations. This novel exercise intervention is suggested to mediate improvements in cerebral activation through upregulated neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and neuro-plastic mechanisms. Despite prior research, there remains to be limited studies behind these concepts in adults with DS and sleep, which is suspected to be an accurate metric for AD-like manifestations. Fifteen older adult participants with DS were assigned to one of two cycling interventions: ACT or VC. All participants were provided Fitbit HR devices for sleep and physical activity tracking. Only five adults had viable continuous collection of data for both sleep and physical activity. While none of our results reached conventional levels of significance, there were trends towards significance in the VC group for total steps taken and in the ACT group for sleep-onset latency (SOL). Individual cases of improvement were noted but it globally can be supported that Fitbit devices are not optimistic for adults with DS due to poor long-term compliance. It comes to no surprise to those involved with these groups that cooperativity tends to be low with long term interventions in research design. In spite of this significant barrier, Fitbit devices offer to be a reliable and inexpensive record keeper of physical activity and sleep. Future research should lean to investigate the viability of Fitbit devices within younger populations, the role of heart rate variability on sleep efficiency and sleep onset latency in DS, and utilize more extensive compliance reinforcement to obtain volume of data collection needed to establish significant measurements of physical activity and sleep in populations with DS.

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2018-12

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Content Analysis of Existing Nutrition Marketing Materials in Central Arizona Schools

Description

The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the content of nutrition marketing materials within the cafeterias of schools in Central Arizona. By collecting photographs of marketing material from three elementary schools, one K-8 school, three middle schools

The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the content of nutrition marketing materials within the cafeterias of schools in Central Arizona. By collecting photographs of marketing material from three elementary schools, one K-8 school, three middle schools and three high schools, 59 pieces of nutrition marketing were gathered. The schools chosen were a convenience sample and selected from schools that were already participating in ASU' s School Lunch Study. The photographs were sorted by grade level and then coded quantitatively and qualitatively for their purpose, visual components, strategies used and relevance. Results from this novel study provided insight into prevalence, size, textual content, educational content, strategies for fruit and vegetable marketing, messaging and overall design of existing nutrition marketing within the sample schools. This study found that the prevalence of nutrition marketing within all school cafeterias appeared to be low, particularly within elementary and middle schools. Diverse types of messaging were present among elementary, middle and high schools and a variety of appeals were utilized with little consistency. Many of the strategies used in the nutrition marketing appeared disconnected from the population it was intended to appeal to. Educational components were notably lacking within middle school cafeterias but were often effectively integrated into high school nutrition marketing. The results are unique to this population, and further research is required to evaluate the content of existing nutrition material on a larger scale, so efforts can be made to improve the persuasiveness of nutrition marketing in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption.

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Date Created
2018-12

The Effect of Exercise on Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

Adaptive behavior consists of the social, conceptual and practical skills an individual must execute to function independently in their everyday life. Individuals with Down syndrome have limitations in their adaptive behavior due to cognitive and physical deficits. The aim of

Adaptive behavior consists of the social, conceptual and practical skills an individual must execute to function independently in their everyday life. Individuals with Down syndrome have limitations in their adaptive behavior due to cognitive and physical deficits. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise program would improve the adaptive behavior skills in persons with Down syndrome. The exercise intervention, Exercise for Adults with Down Syndrome (ExDS), was a semester long program where adults with Down syndrome participate in twice weekly workouts planned and executed by Arizona State University students. The workouts consisted of an aerobic warm up, aerobic exercises, resistance exercises, balance exercises and stretches. The participants' adaptive behavior and cognitive planning ability were assessed before ExDS and after ExDS. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Second Edition (ABAS-II) was used to measure adaptive behavior. The ABAS-II consisted of a forum that addressed the Social, Conceptual and Practical domains of adaptive behavior and was filled out by the participants' caregiver. The Tower of London (ToL) was used to measure cognitive planning ability. The change in the ABAS-II scores from pre- to post-testing were statistically insignificant. The change from pre- to post-testing in the ToL scores approached statistical significance. Limitations included bias caregiver perception and respondent inconsistency. There is a need for further research on the effect of exercise on the adaptive behavior in adults with Down syndrome.

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2018-12

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Effects of a Community-Based Nutrition Program on the Intake of Fruits, Vegetables, and Sugar in Children

Description

Childhood obesity is a worsening epidemic in the U.S. with substantial racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. Community-based approaches are necessary to target populations that are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. The current randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of Athletes for

Childhood obesity is a worsening epidemic in the U.S. with substantial racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. Community-based approaches are necessary to target populations that are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. The current randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of Athletes for Life (AFL), a 12-week community-based nutrition education and physical activity program that aims to improve cardiovascular fitness and promote healthy eating among families in the South Phoenix region, relative to a control condition. One of the goals of the intervention was to increase participating children's intake of fruits/vegetables and reduce their sugar intake, measured by a parent-reported food-frequency questionnaire. Data were collected on 110 child participants aged 6-11 years old. Relative to baseline values, participants in the intervention reportedly increased their fruit intake frequency by 0.12 + 2.0 times per day, whereas the control group decreased their intake by 0.32 + 1.28 times per day (p=0.026). Participants in the intervention group also increased their vegetable intake by 0.21 + 0.65 times per day, whereas control participants decreased their intake by 0.05 + 0.72 times per day (p=0.019). Participants in the intervention group decreased their intake of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake by 0.22 + 0.62 times per day, whereas control participants decreased their intake of SSBs by 0.04 + 0.40 times per day, however, the change observed in SSB intake was not significant between groups. Lastly, frequency of sugar-laden food intake decreased by 0.86 + 1.10 times per day among the intervention group, whereas control participants increased their intake by 0.02 + 1.10 times per day (p=0.033). The AFL study may serve as a framework for future community-based interventions to promote health in underserved areas.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Food Based Strategies Against Alzheimer's Disease

Description

The purpose of this project is to present and consolidate current research on various nutrients and diet patterns and assess their role on the development of Alzheimer's Disease. I will begin with an explanation of Alzheimer's Disease that includes general

The purpose of this project is to present and consolidate current research on various nutrients and diet patterns and assess their role on the development of Alzheimer's Disease. I will begin with an explanation of Alzheimer's Disease that includes general health related information and the statistical prevalence of the disease. Following the informational overview, I will be presenting the most current research and summarizing the findings for seven single nutrients and five dietary patterns. Following the assessment will be an expository segment discussing epigenetics nutrigenomics and how this process works with different nutrients and diet patterns to impact the likelihood of developing Alzheimer's Disease from a genetic perspective. Based on the research found in the single nutrients segment, the dietary pattern segment, and the epigenetics nutrigenomics segment, I will conclude with a holistic diet plan that is the most preventative against Alzheimer's Disease.

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Date Created
2018-05

Nutrition Education Video Series for the Improvement of Arizona State University Student Health

Description

Most reliable nutrition information can be found online, but it can be nearly impossible to differentiate from the unreliable blogs and websites that claim their information is correct. Because of this, it can be difficult for students to determine which

Most reliable nutrition information can be found online, but it can be nearly impossible to differentiate from the unreliable blogs and websites that claim their information is correct. Because of this, it can be difficult for students to determine which information is true and which advice they will follow. During this time of growth and learning, it is essential that students have access to accurate information that will help them to be healthier individuals for years to come. The goal of this project was to provide students with an easily accessible and reliable resource for nutrition information that was presented in a simple and relatable way. The following videos and attached materials were created in response to ASU student needs and will be available for students on the ASU wellness website. Eating Healthy on a Budget: https://youtu.be/H-IUArD0phY Healthy Choices at Fast Food Restaurants: https://youtu.be/ZxcjBblpRtM Quick Healthy Meals: https://youtu.be/7uIDFe15-dM

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Date Created
2017-12

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Self-Efficacy and Exercise Perception in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on self-efficacy and exercise perception in older adults with Down syndrome (DS) after a three times a week for 8 weeks intervention. Thirteen participants were

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on self-efficacy and exercise perception in older adults with Down syndrome (DS) after a three times a week for 8 weeks intervention. Thirteen participants were in the ACT group in which a motor assisted their cycling to be performed at least 30% faster than voluntary cycling (VC), 11 participants were in the voluntary cycling group and two participants were in the no cycling (NC) group. The results showed that both exercise groups (i.e., ACT and VC) improved in their self-efficacy after the 8 week intervention. In addition, exercise perception improved following ACT and not VC or NC. Our results are discussed with respect to their future implications for exercise in the DS population. It might be that the yielded results were due to differences in effort required by each intervention group as well as the neurotrophic factors that occur when muscle contractions create synaptic connections resulting in improvement in cognition and feelings of satisfaction. In the future, research should focus on the psychological factors such as social accountability and peer interaction as they relate to ACT and physical activity in person's with DS.

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Date Created
2018-05

A Broke Bitch's Guide to Grub: An Exploration of College Eating Habits

Description

This project aims to explore factors influencing college students' eating behavior, and solutions to poor eating habits throughout college. I found that money, taste, and convenience are among the largest contributors to decisions college students make regarding where and what

This project aims to explore factors influencing college students' eating behavior, and solutions to poor eating habits throughout college. I found that money, taste, and convenience are among the largest contributors to decisions college students make regarding where and what to eat. I have created a cookbook, where each recipe costs under and up to $2 to create, that falls within the acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR), and that will provide a reasonable number of calories for a young adult. My create project entails 21 original recipes that have been tested, perfected, and formed into the AMDR, to provide financially struggling students with a week's worth of substantial meals. I also included original illustrations to make the project visually appealing and add an additional layer of creativity to the work. There are 21 original recipes and 20 original illustrations found in the book, along with original research on the least expensive locations to buy food and the instruments necessary to prepare it. I have also included secondary research on the factors influencing college students' eating habits, and the recommended calorie intake and price point for young adults on a "thrifty" (low income) food plan. I have begun looking into publishing my work, both in print and as an e-book.

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2017-05