Matching Items (14)

Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Anode Lithium Ion Batteries

Description

Anticipatory LCA seeks to overcome the paucity of data through scenario development and thermodynamic bounding analyses. Critical components of anticipatory LCA include:
       1) Laboratory-scale inventory data collection

Anticipatory LCA seeks to overcome the paucity of data through scenario development and thermodynamic bounding analyses. Critical components of anticipatory LCA include:
       1) Laboratory-scale inventory data collection for nano-manufacturing processes and
           preliminary performance evaluation.
       2) Thermodynamic modeling of manufacturing processes and developing scenarios of     
           efficiency gains informed by analogous material processing industries.
       3) Use-phase bounding to report inventory data in a functional unit descriptive of
           performance.

Together, these analyses may call attention to environmentally problematic processes or nanotechnologies before significant investments in R&D and infrastructure contribute to technology lock in. The following case study applies these components of anticipatory LCA to single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) manufacturing processes, compares the rapid improvements in SWCNT manufacturing to historic reductions in the embodied energy of aluminum, and discusses the use of SWCNTs as free-standing anodes in advanced lithium ion batteries.

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Date Created
  • 2012-05

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The Effects of Manufacturing Technology on the Microstructure of Carbon Nanotube Membranes

Description

Carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes (buckypaper) are manufactured with multiple procedures, vacuum filtration, surfactant-free, and 3D printing. A post-manufacturing process for resin impregnation is subjected to the membranes. The effects of

Carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes (buckypaper) are manufactured with multiple procedures, vacuum filtration, surfactant-free, and 3D printing. A post-manufacturing process for resin impregnation is subjected to the membranes. The effects of manufacturing processes on the microstructure and material properties are investigated for both pristine and resin saturated samples manufactured using all procedures. Microstructural characteristics that are studied include specific surface area, porosity, pore size distribution, density, and permeability. Scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize the morphology of the membrane. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis is conducted on membrane samples to determine the specific surface area. Barrett-Joyner-Halenda analysis is conducted on membrane samples to determine pore characteristics. Once the microstructure is characterized for each manufacturing process for both pristine and resin saturated samples, material properties of the membrane and nanocomposite structures are explored and compared on a manufacturing basis as well as a microstructural basis. Membranes samples are interleaved in the overlap of carbon fiber polymer matrix composite tubes, which are subjected to fracture testing. The effects of carbon nanotube membrane manufacturing technology on the fracture properties of nanocomposite structures with tubular geometries are explored. In parallel, the influences of manufacturing technology on the electromechanical properties of the membrane that effect a piezoresistive response are investigated for both pristine and resin saturated membranes manufactured using both methods. The result of this study is a better understanding of the relationships between manufacturing technology and the effected microstructure, and the resulting influences on material properties for both CNT membranes and derivative nanocomposite structures. Developing an understanding of these multiscale relationships leads to an increased capacity in designing manufacturing processes specific to optimizing the expression of desired characteristics for any given application.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Nanoscale Interphase Characterization of Agglomerated MWCNT in Composites Connected to Mode I Fracture

Description

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) are a promising engineering material because of their multifunctionality and desirable mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The mechanical and fracture properties of CFRPs rely on

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) are a promising engineering material because of their multifunctionality and desirable mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The mechanical and fracture properties of CFRPs rely on effective stress transfer from the bulk matrix to individual carbon fibers. Pristine carbon fibers (CF) are chemically unreactive and smooth, which inhibits stress transfer mechanisms and makes CF susceptible to matrix debonding. Current composite research aims to improve the synergy between the CF and surrounding matrix by engineering the interphase. The composite interphase is characterized by mechanical properties deviating from the fiber and matrix properties. Carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene nanoplatelets, and other carbon nanofillers have been studied extensively for their interphase-enhancing capabilities.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Pyrrole-based poly(ionic liquids) as efficient stabilizers for formation of hollow MWCNT particles

Description

Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) with an intrinsically conducting pyrrole polymer (ICP) backbone were synthesized and utilized as novel dispersants of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various polar and nonpolar solvents. This is

Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) with an intrinsically conducting pyrrole polymer (ICP) backbone were synthesized and utilized as novel dispersants of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various polar and nonpolar solvents. This is due to their highly tunable nature, in which the anions can be easily exchanged to form PILs of varying polarity but with the same polycation. These CNT dispersions were exceedingly stable over many months, and with the addition of hexane, Pickering emulsions with the PIL-stabilized CNTs at the droplet interfaces were formed. Depending on the hydrophobicity of the PIL, hexane-in-water and hexane-in-acetonitrile emulsions were formed, the latter marking the first non-aqueous stabilized-CNT emulsions and corresponding CNT-in-acetonitrile dispersion, further advancing the processability of CNTs. The PIL-stabilized CNT Pickering emulsion droplets generated hollow conductive particles by subsequent drying of the emulsions. With the emulsion templating, the hollow shells can be used as a payload carrier, depending on the solubility of the payload in the droplet phase of the emulsion. This was demonstrated with silicon nanoparticles, which have limited solubility in aqueous environments, but great scientific interest due to their potential electrochemical applications. Overall, this work explored a new class of efficient PIL-ICP hybrid stabilizers with tunable hydrophobicity, offering extended stability of carbon nanotube dispersions with novel applications in hollow particle formation via Pickering emulsion templating and in placing payloads into the shells.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Carbonaceous nanomaterials as flame retardant coating on fabric

Description

Flame retardants (FRs) are applied to variety of consumer products such as textiles and polymers for fire prevention and fire safety. Substantial research is ongoing to replace traditional FRs with

Flame retardants (FRs) are applied to variety of consumer products such as textiles and polymers for fire prevention and fire safety. Substantial research is ongoing to replace traditional FRs with alternative materials that are less toxic, present higher flame retardancy and result in lower overall exposure as there are potential health concerns in case of exposure to popular FRs. Carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNMs) such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) have been studied and applied to polymer composites and electronics extensively due to their remarkable properties. Hence CNMs are considered as potential alternative materials that present high flame retardancy. In this research, different kinds of CNMs coatings on polyester fabric are produced and evaluated for their use as flame retardants. To monitor the mass loading of CNMs coated on the fabric, a two-step analytical method for quantifying CNMs embedded in polymer composites was developed. This method consisted of polymer dissolution process using organic solvents followed by subsequent programmed thermal analysis (PTA). This quantification technique was applicable to CNTs with and without high metal impurities in a broad range of polymers. Various types of CNMs were coated on polyester fabric and the efficacy of coatings as flame retardant was evaluated. The oxygen content of CNMs emerged as a critical parameter impacting flame retardancy with higher oxygen content resulting in less FR efficacy. The most performant nanomaterials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and amine functionalized multi-walled carbon nantoubes (NH2-MWCNT) showed similar FR properties to current flame retardants with low mass loading (0.18 g/m2) and hence are promising alternatives that warrant further investigation. Chemical/physical modification of MWCNTs was conducted to produce well-dispersed MWCNT solutions without involving oxygen for uniform FR coating. The MWCNTs coating was studied to evaluate the durability of the coating and the impact on the efficacy during use phase by conducting mechanical abrasion and washing test. Approximately 50% and 40% of MWCNTs were released from 1 set of mechanical abrasion and washing test respectively. The losses during simulated usage impacted the flame retardancy negatively.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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A Study on the Use of Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing for Electrostatic Discharge Compliant Components from PEEK-Carbon Nanotube Composite

Description

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) is a unique issue in the electronics industry that can cause failures of electrical components and complete electronic systems. There is an entire industry that is

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) is a unique issue in the electronics industry that can cause failures of electrical components and complete electronic systems. There is an entire industry that is focused on developing ESD compliant tooling using traditional manufacturing methods. This research work evaluates the feasibility to fabricate a PEEK-Carbon Nanotube composite filament for Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) Additive Manufacturing that is ESD compliant. In addition, it demonstrates that the FFF process can be used to print tools with the required accuracy, ESD compliance and mechanical properties necessary for the electronics industry at a low rate production level. Current Additive Manufacturing technology can print high temperature polymers, such as PEEK, with the required mechanical properties but they are not ESD compliant and require post processing to create a product that is. There has been some research conducted using mixed multi-wall and single wall carbon nanotubes in a PEEK polymers, which improves mechanical properties while reducing bulk resistance to the levels required to be ESD compliant. This previous research has been used to develop a PEEK-CNT polymer matrix for the Fused Filament Fabrication additive manufacturing process

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Nanofluidic pathways for single molecule translocation and sequencing: nanotubes and nanopores

Description

Driven by the curiosity for the secret of life, the effort on sequencing of DNAs and other large biopolymers has never been respited. Advanced from recent sequencing techniques, nanotube and

Driven by the curiosity for the secret of life, the effort on sequencing of DNAs and other large biopolymers has never been respited. Advanced from recent sequencing techniques, nanotube and nanopore based sequencing has been attracting much attention. This thesis focuses on the study of first and crucial compartment of the third generation sequencing technique, the capture and translocation of biopolymers, and discuss the advantages and obstacles of two different nanofluidic pathways, nanotubes and nanopores for single molecule capturing and translocation. Carbon nanotubes with its constrained structure, the frictionless inner wall and strong electroosmotic flow, are promising materials for linearly threading DNA and other biopolymers for sequencing. Solid state nanopore on the other hand, is a robust chemical, thermal and mechanical stable nanofluidic device, which has a high capturing rate and, to some extent, good controllable threading ability for DNA and other biomolecules. These two different but similar nanofluidic pathways both provide a good preparation of analyte molecules for the sequencing purpose. In addition, more and more research interests have move onto peptide chains and protein sensing. For proteome is better and more direct indicators for human health, peptide chains and protein sensing have a much wider range of applications on bio-medicine, disease early diagnoses, and etc. A universal peptide chain nanopore sensing technique with universal chemical modification of peptides is discussed in this thesis as well, which unifies the nanopore capturing process for vast varieties of peptides. Obstacles of these nanofluidic pathways are also discussed. In the end of this thesis, a proposal of integration of solid state nanopore and fixed-gap recognition tunneling sequencing technique for a more accurate DNA and peptide readout is discussed, together with some early study work, which gives a new direction for nanopore based sequencing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Electronic and ionic transport in carbon nanotubes and other nanostructures

Description

This thesis describes several experiments based on carbon nanotube nanofludic devices and field-effect transistors. The first experiment detected ion and molecule translocation through one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) that spans

This thesis describes several experiments based on carbon nanotube nanofludic devices and field-effect transistors. The first experiment detected ion and molecule translocation through one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) that spans a barrier between two fluid reservoirs. The electrical ionic current is measured. Translocation of small single stranded DNA oligomers is marked by large transient increases in current through the tube and confirmed by a PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis. Carbon nanotubes simplify the construction of nanopores, permit new types of electrical measurement, and open new avenues for control of DNA translocation. The second experiment constructed devices in which the interior of a single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET) acts as a nanofluidic channel that connects two fluid reservoirs, permitting measurement of the electronic properties of the SWCNT as it is wetted by an analyte. Wetting of the inside of the SWCNT by water turns the transistor on, while wetting of the outside has little effect. This finding may provide a new method to investigate water behavior at nanoscale. This also opens a new avenue for building sensors in which the SWCNT functions as an electronic detector. This thesis also presents some experiments that related to nanofabrication, such as construction of FET with tin sulfide (SnS) quantum ribbon. This work demonstrates the application of solution processed IV-VI semiconductor nanostructures in nanoscale devices.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Carbon nanotube based nanofluidic devices

Description

Nanofluidic devices in which one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) spans a barrier between two fluid reservoirs were constructed, enabling direct electrical measurement of the transport of ions and molecules. Ion

Nanofluidic devices in which one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) spans a barrier between two fluid reservoirs were constructed, enabling direct electrical measurement of the transport of ions and molecules. Ion current through these devices is about 2 orders of magnitude larger than that predicted from the bulk resistivity of the electrolyte. Electroosmosis drives excess current, carried by cations, and is found to be the origin of giant ionic current through SWCNT as shown by building an ionic field-effect transistor with a gate electrode embedded in the fluid barrier. Wetting of inside of the semi-conducting SWCNT by water showed the change of its electronic property, turning the electronic SWCNT field-effect transistor to "on" state. These findings provide a new method to investigate and control the ion and molecule behavior at nanoscale.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Development of an ECM-mimetic, electrospun hydrogel scaffold for soft tissue repair application

Description

The objective of this research is to develop a biocompatible scaffold based on dextran and poly acrylic acid (PAA) with the potential to be used for soft tissue repair. In

The objective of this research is to develop a biocompatible scaffold based on dextran and poly acrylic acid (PAA) with the potential to be used for soft tissue repair. In this thesis, physical and chemical properties of the scaffold were investigated. The scaffolds were made using electrospinning and cross-linked under high temperature. After heat treatment, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to observe the structures of these scaffolds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the cross-linking level of scaffold samples given different times of heat treatment by detecting and comparing the newly formed ester bonds. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were added to enhance the mechanical properties of dextran-PAA scaffolds. Attachment of NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells to the scaffold and the response upon implantation into rabbit vaginal tissue were also evaluated to investigate the performance of SWCNT dextran-PAA scaffold. SEM was then used to characterize morphology of fibroblast cells and rabbit tissues. The results suggest that SWCNT could enhance cell attachment, distribution and spreading performance of dextran-PAA scaffold.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014