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Government incentives and how they encourage manufacturing facilities to adopt environmental management systems: a look at the efficiency of policy tools

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Traditional methods of environmental regulation and enforcement have been questioned over the last decade. Due to the number of environmental regulations, and subsequent cost of enforcement, governments have begun to incentivize the adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs). These

Traditional methods of environmental regulation and enforcement have been questioned over the last decade. Due to the number of environmental regulations, and subsequent cost of enforcement, governments have begun to incentivize the adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs). These management systems encourage companies to better manage their environmental performance voluntarily. It is the purpose of this study to list the types of government incentives that have been used and categorize them into three groups based off of their characteristics. Ten incentive types were identified and put into three categories; (a) reducing the barriers to EMS adoption; (b) enhancing benefits derived from EMS adoption, and (c) rewarding EMS implementers with reduced enforcement. The research shows that each category of incentives encourages different manufacturing facilities to adopt EMSs. Using data from previously conducted case studies and surveys to determine what type of manufacturing facilities are affected, this study finds that government incentives have been shown to have a measurable impact on the decision makers of manufacturing facilities to adopt an EMS. The study concludes that a combination of traditional environmental regulation used with targeted incentives provide the most efficient use of resources by governments.

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2011

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Geochemical analysis of the leachate generated after zero valent metals addition to municipal solid waste

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Zero-Valent Metals (ZVM) are highly reactive materials and have been proved to be effective in contaminant reduction in soils and groundwater remediation. In fact, zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) has proven to be very effective in removing, particularly chlorinated organics, heavy metals,

Zero-Valent Metals (ZVM) are highly reactive materials and have been proved to be effective in contaminant reduction in soils and groundwater remediation. In fact, zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) has proven to be very effective in removing, particularly chlorinated organics, heavy metals, and odorous sulfides. Addition of ZVI has also been proved in enhancing the methane gas generation in anaerobic digestion of activated sludge. However, no studies have been conducted regarding the effect of ZVM stimulation to Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) degradation. Therefore, a collaborative study was developed to manipulate microbial activity in the landfill bioreactors to favor methane production by adding ZVMs. This study focuses on evaluating the effects of added ZVM on the leachate generated from replicated lab scale landfill bioreactors. The specific objective was to investigate the effects of ZVMs addition on the organic and inorganic pollutants in leachate. The hypothesis here evaluated was that adding ZVM including ZVI and Zero Valent Manganese (ZVMn) will enhance the removal rates of the organic pollutants present in the leachate, likely by a putative higher rate of microbial metabolism. Test with six (4.23 gallons) bioreactors assembled with MSW collected from the Salt River Landfill and Southwest Regional Landfill showed that under 5 grams /liter of ZVI and 0.625 grams/liter of ZVMn additions, no significant difference was observed in the pH and temperature data of the leachate generated from these reactors. The conductivity data suggested the steady rise across all reactors over the period of time. The removal efficiency of sCOD was highest (27.112 mg/lit/day) for the reactors added with ZVMn at the end of 150 days for bottom layer, however the removal rate was highest (16.955 mg/lit/day) for ZVI after the end of 150 days of the middle layer. Similar trends in the results was observed in TC analysis. HPLC study indicated the dominance of the concentration of heptanoate and isovalerate were leachate generated from the bottom layer across all reactors. Heptanoate continued to dominate in the ZVMn added leachate even after middle layer injection. IC analysis concluded the chloride was dominant in the leachate generated from all the reactors and there was a steady increase in the chloride content over the period of time. Along with chloride, fluoride, bromide, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and sulfate were also detected in considerable concentrations. In the summary, the addition of the zero valent metals has proved to be efficient in removal of the organics present in the leachate.

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2019