Matching Items (22)

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Toxin Level Analysis in Dogs Envenomated by Pit Vipers in Arizona

Description

To date, there have been few, if any, studies evaluating the venom toxin levels in dogs that have been naturally envenomated by pit vipers. Understanding venom toxin pharmacokinetics in a clinical setting is important for a variety of reasons, including

To date, there have been few, if any, studies evaluating the venom toxin levels in dogs that have been naturally envenomated by pit vipers. Understanding venom toxin pharmacokinetics in a clinical setting is important for a variety of reasons, including the potential to better elucidate treatment options, prognosis, and other factors associated with pit viper envenomation. In addition, dogs serve as a comparative species to humans for evaluating pit viper envenomations. This pilot study’s primary objective was to address the question of “What do we see?” in dogs presenting for rattlesnake envenomation. To answer this question, we obtained serum from envenomated dogs presenting at three veterinary clinics, then used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis to measure total venom and key toxins in sera. Phospholipase A2, a primary venom toxin, was identified in a few samples by the western blot, and contributed to the positive correlation between percent echinocytes in the blood and venom concentration. Medical data records were compared to venom concentrations measured using ELISA to determine whether there were any significant correlations. First, the hematological results were compared. Clotting times showed a strong positive correlation, clotting times and platelets showed a negative correlation, while echinocytes and platelets showed no correlation. When compared to venom concentration, clotting times showed a negative correlation, while age showed a positive correlation. Weight and platelets were also compared to venom concentration, but no significant correlations were found. The logistics of this study provided a real-world model where time elapsed between envenomation and hospital admission, thus giving a realistic look at what occurs in both animal and human medicine.

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Date Created
2019-05

Finding Your Dog's Ecological 'Pawprint': A Hybrid EIO-LCA of Dog Food Manufacturing

Description

Many relationships exist between humans and their animal companions. Regardless of the relationship, the costs of pet ownership are more than just veterinary bills and the purchase of pet food. The purpose of this study is to examine the environmental

Many relationships exist between humans and their animal companions. Regardless of the relationship, the costs of pet ownership are more than just veterinary bills and the purchase of pet food. The purpose of this study is to examine the environmental impacts associated with ownership of canus lupus familiaris, more commonly known as the domesticated dog. Since dogs are carnivorous by nature, there has already been significant interest in the ecological ‘pawprint’ of pet food, or the pressure that dog food production exerts on the environment.

This study utilizes Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to determine the environmental impacts of industrial pet food production and furthermore, pet ownership through nutritional requirements. Additionally, this study aims to examine how pet food type—beef or lamb—can influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The approach taken by this study is that of a hybrid input-output LCA, combining Economic Input Output (EIO-LCA) data and process-level data to examine how supply chain decisions made by pet food manufactures can affect the ecological ‘pawprint’ of the domestic dog. The EIO-LCA provides an economy-wide lens, whereas, process-based LCAs provide data relevant to specific materials and processes. This approach was used to compare the environmental impacts associated with environmentally friendly supply chain decisions compared to the typical environmental impact of dog food.

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Date Created
2013-05

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Who's Top Dog? The Sociability towards Humans of Six Different Canid Types

Description

We compared sociability towards humans of domesticated and tame members of several Canidae: Belyaev's fox (Vulpes vulpes), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), gray wolf (Canis lupus), dingo (Canis l. dingo), New Guinea singing dog (Canis l. dingo), and dog (Canis l.

We compared sociability towards humans of domesticated and tame members of several Canidae: Belyaev's fox (Vulpes vulpes), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), gray wolf (Canis lupus), dingo (Canis l. dingo), New Guinea singing dog (Canis l. dingo), and dog (Canis l. familiaris). We defined sociability as motivation or willingness to engage with humans. Our operationalized definition of sociability is the latency to approach (LTA) the human experimenter and the amount of time the canid spent within one meter of the human experimenter (PTC). We added an unfamiliar and familiar experimenter condition to deduce whether or not canids discriminated on who they were more social with: an owner or a stranger. To each experimenter condition we added a passive and active phase to discern whether or not canids were more social when called or not. Across all conditions and phases dogs were significantly more social than all other canid types. We concluded genetic differences due to domestication and environmental differences due to socialization accounted for sociability differences seen in dogs compared to the other canid types.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Perception of American Pit Bull Terriers

Description

Behavior traits were examined in an observed experiment with the presentation of an American Pit Bull Terrier. The experiment was conducted at two locations (Wal Mart, Pet Smart) with searching for behavior traits (positive, negative) with an American Pit Bull

Behavior traits were examined in an observed experiment with the presentation of an American Pit Bull Terrier. The experiment was conducted at two locations (Wal Mart, Pet Smart) with searching for behavior traits (positive, negative) with an American Pit Bull Terrier present. In contrast to the hypothesis, there was more positive behavior traits than negative behavior traits. Together, these findings suggest that the presentation of an American Pit Bull Terrier has a more positive outlook on the breed rather than negative. Similar studies should be conducted to change the legislation in regard of "Pit Bulls" that cause discrimination against the breed.

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Date Created
2017-05

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The Effect of Inbreeding and Life History Traits on the Risk of Cancer Mortality in Dogs

Description

Due to artificial selection, dogs have high levels of phenotypic diversity, yet, there appears to be low genetic diversity within individual breeds. Through their domestication from wolves, dogs have gone through a series of population bottlenecks, which has resulted in

Due to artificial selection, dogs have high levels of phenotypic diversity, yet, there appears to be low genetic diversity within individual breeds. Through their domestication from wolves, dogs have gone through a series of population bottlenecks, which has resulted in a reduction in genetic diversity, with a large amount of linkage disequilibrium and the persistence of deleterious mutations. This has led to an increased susceptibility to a multitude of diseases, including cancer. To study the effects of artificial selection and life history characteristics on the risk of cancer mortality, we collected cancer mortality data from four studies as well as the percent of heterozygosity, body size, lifespan and breed group for 201 dog breeds. We also collected specific types of cancer breeds were susceptible to and compared the dog cancer mortality patterns to the patterns observed in other mammals. We found a relationship between cancer mortality rate and heterozygosity, body size, lifespan as well as breed group. Higher levels of heterozygosity were also associated with longer lifespan. These results indicate larger breeds, such as Irish Water Spaniels, Flat-coated Retrievers and Bernese Mountain Dogs, are more susceptible to cancer, with lower heterozygosity and lifespan. These breeds are also more susceptible to sarcomas, as opposed to carcinomas in smaller breeds, such as Miniature Pinschers, Chihuahuas, and Pekingese. Other mammals show that larger and long-lived animals have decreased cancer mortality, however, within dog breeds, the opposite relationship is observed. These relationships could be due to the trade-off between cellular maintenance and growing fast and large, with higher expression of growth factors, such as IGF-1. This study further demonstrates the relationships between cancer mortality, heterozygosity, and life history traits and exhibits dogs as an important model organism for understanding the relationship between genetics and health.

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Created

Date Created
2017-12

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Empathy and Pro-Human Social Behavior in Dogs: Will Dogs Attempt to Rescue a Person in Distress?

Description

There are many anecdotal stories of dogs rescuing their owners from dangerous situations, but this rescue behavior has yet to be shown in an experimental setting. Studies have shown that dogs behave differently towards crying humans, but do not seek

There are many anecdotal stories of dogs rescuing their owners from dangerous situations, but this rescue behavior has yet to be shown in an experimental setting. Studies have shown that dogs behave differently towards crying humans, but do not seek help for their owners when they are in distress. This study sought to determine if a dog could recognize when its owner was in distress and would attempt to rescue the owner. The experiment consisted of three conditions: a distress condition to determine how dogs respond to an owner calling for help, a reading condition to control for proximity-seeking and sound, and a food control to use as a basis for motivation and door-opening ability of the dog. Sixty dogs were tested in all three conditions in a pseudo-random order so that an equal number of dogs completed the conditions in each order. 38% of the dogs opened the apparatus for any condition, while 32% opened for the food and distress conditions and 27% opened for the reading condition, which shows that rescue in general is unlikely. There was no significant difference in the proportion of dogs who opened the apparatus for each condition, indicating that dogs are no more likely to rescue their distressed owners than they are to open the apparatus for other conditions and may not be able to sense that the owner is in distress. The similarities in the success rates also show that the owner can be just as motivating for a dog as food. Overall, the low success rates suggest that dogs are not generally likely to rescue a person who is trapped, even when they are calling for help.

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Created

Date Created
2018-05

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Spatial Memory Impairments as a Function of Increasing Age in Pet Dogs

Description

Previous research pertaining to dog memory and cognition has been confined mainly to samples of colony dogs and therefore can be hard to generalize to a larger population of pet dogs and varying breeds. The present study focused entirely on

Previous research pertaining to dog memory and cognition has been confined mainly to samples of colony dogs and therefore can be hard to generalize to a larger population of pet dogs and varying breeds. The present study focused entirely on pet dogs of many different breeds, rather than colony or laboratory animals for the purposes of accessibility, affordability, and novelty. Methods: We presented the dogs with a memory task in the form of a game in which the dogs chose to search for food at one of two locations at varying delay intervals, with a maximum time limit of one hour per dog. We expected our data to show a significant decrease in memory capacity and an increase in error rates among older dogs as compared to younger dogs; these results would allow us to conclude that it is likely many dogs, much like humans, experience various cognitive deficits as a function of increasing age. Results: Using one-factor ANOVA and linear and curvilinear regression analyses, we examined the relationship between the independent variable, age (individual dog ages as well as three generalized age categories), and three dependent variables. The dependent variables were: (a) percentage of correct choices at a 60 second delay interval, (b) maximum delay interval attempted (MDIA), and (c) the maximum delay interval that was completed above chance level (50%) (MDAC). We found significant results to support our hypotheses that aged dogs show spatial memory and cognitive deficits in comparison with young and middle-aged dogs, and that age can be considered a marginally significant predictor of spatial memory capacity.

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Date Created
2018-12

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Right Then

Description

A collection of poems concentrating on 15 small moments, tied together to explore the ardor, tensions, and fragility a relationship. Conceptions of language, teeth, domesticated dogs, and a car accident recur throughout the manuscript as a means of navigating this

A collection of poems concentrating on 15 small moments, tied together to explore the ardor, tensions, and fragility a relationship. Conceptions of language, teeth, domesticated dogs, and a car accident recur throughout the manuscript as a means of navigating this narrative and of questioning the role of memory in our lives.

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Created

Date Created
2015-05

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Development of Brief Memory Tests for Use with Pet Dogs

Description

Brief memory tasks for use with pet dogs were developed using radial arm maze performance as a standard comparison measurement of memory capacity. Healthy pet dogs were first tested in a radial arm maze, where more errors made in completing

Brief memory tasks for use with pet dogs were developed using radial arm maze performance as a standard comparison measurement of memory capacity. Healthy pet dogs were first tested in a radial arm maze, where more errors made in completing the maze indicated poorer memory. These dogs were later tested with five novel memory tests, three of which utilized a treat placed behind a box with an identical distracter nearby. The treat placement was shown to each dog, and a 35 second delay, a 15 second delay with occluder, or a 15 second delay with room exit was observed before the dog could approach and find the treat. It was found that errors on the delayed match to sample (35 second delay) and occluder/object permanence (15 second delay with occluder) tasks were significantly positively correlated with the average number of errors made in the 8th trial of the radial arm maze (r =.58, p<.01** and r =.49, p<.05*, respectively) indicating that these new brief tests can reliably be used to assess memory in pet dogs.

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Date Created
2015-05

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Family, Too: The Stories Behind Shelter Dogs

Description

My thesis is an experiment in the power of social media and networking. The compelling question is: How can we as journalists motivate people to connect with Facebook/blog postings enough to share them with their own networks? This is a

My thesis is an experiment in the power of social media and networking. The compelling question is: How can we as journalists motivate people to connect with Facebook/blog postings enough to share them with their own networks? This is a huge issue with journalism because it is a challenge to move people and to get them to share information.
My thesis project took the form of a networking blog for adoptable animals at the local pound. I created unique photos of the dogs and wrote up bios for them so that they became more accessible to people who could not physically visit the shelter very often. I brought the dogs to life by sharing a part of their story and encouraging people to care about what happened to them. This issue is especially close to my heart because I have loved animals all my life and started fostering dogs a few years ago.
The project was a huge success. I profiled 37 dogs and they amassed hundreds of thousands of views both on my Wordpress site and on the project Facebook page. Five of my dogs were euthanized, about a 13% euthanasia rate. Compared to the owner surrender euthanasia rate of previous years, this rate is remarkably low. In 2012, about 43.86% of owner surrenders were euthanized. In 2013, about 39.19% of owner surrenders were euthanized. In 2014, about 33.27% of owner surrenders were euthanized. My euthanasia rate was essentially less than half of the last year’s owner surrender euthanasia rate.
I think I absolutely proved my point. The power of networking in unique ways and leveraging the influence of social media cannot be underestimated. Less dogs were killed because of my project. If that’s not success, then I don’t know what is.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05