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A study of evaluation methods centered on reliability for renewal of aging hydropower plants

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Hydropower generation is one of the clean renewable energies which has received great attention in the power industry. Hydropower has been the leading source of renewable energy. It provides more

Hydropower generation is one of the clean renewable energies which has received great attention in the power industry. Hydropower has been the leading source of renewable energy. It provides more than 86% of all electricity generated by renewable sources worldwide. Generally, the life span of a hydropower plant is considered as 30 to 50 years. Power plants over 30 years old usually conduct a feasibility study of rehabilitation on their entire facilities including infrastructure. By age 35, the forced outage rate increases by 10 percentage points compared to the previous year. Much longer outages occur in power plants older than 20 years. Consequently, the forced outage rate increases exponentially due to these longer outages. Although these long forced outages are not frequent, their impact is immense. If reasonable timing of rehabilitation is missed, an abrupt long-term outage could occur and additional unnecessary repairs and inefficiencies would follow. On the contrary, too early replacement might cause the waste of revenue. The hydropower plants of Korea Water Resources Corporation (hereafter K-water) are utilized for this study. Twenty-four K-water generators comprise the population for quantifying the reliability of each equipment. A facility in a hydropower plant is a repairable system because most failures can be fixed without replacing the entire facility. The fault data of each power plant are collected, within which only forced outage faults are considered as raw data for reliability analyses. The mean cumulative repair functions (MCF) of each facility are determined with the failure data tables, using Nelson's graph method. The power law model, a popular model for a repairable system, can also be obtained to represent representative equipment and system availability. The criterion-based analysis of HydroAmp is used to provide more accurate reliability of each power plant. Two case studies are presented to enhance the understanding of the availability of each power plant and represent economic evaluations for modernization. Also, equipment in a hydropower plant is categorized into two groups based on their reliability for determining modernization timing and their suitable replacement periods are obtained using simulation.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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A probabilistic cost to benefit assessment of a next generation electric power distribution system

Description

This thesis provides a cost to benefit assessment of the proposed next generation distribution system, the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. In this thesis, a probabilistic study

This thesis provides a cost to benefit assessment of the proposed next generation distribution system, the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. In this thesis, a probabilistic study is conducted to determine the payback period for an investment made in the FREEDM distribution system. The stochastic study will help in performing a detailed analysis in estimating the probability density function and statistics associated with the payback period.

This thesis also identifies several parameters associated with the FREEDM system, which are used in the cost benefit study to evaluate the investment and several direct and indirect benefits. Different topologies are selected to represent the FREEDM test bed. Considering the cost of high speed fault isolation devices, the topology design is selected based on the minimum number of fault isolation devices constrained by enhanced reliability. A case study is also performed to assess the economic impact of energy storage devices in the solid state transformers so that the fault isolation devices may be replaced by conventional circuit breakers.

A reliability study is conducted on the FREEDM distribution system to examine the customer centric reliability index, System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI). It is observed that the SAIFI was close to 0.125 for the FREEDM distribution system. In addition, a comparison study is performed based on the SAIFI for a representative U.S. distribution system and the FREEDM distribution system.

The payback period is also determined by adopting a theoretical approach and the results are compared with the Monte Carlo simulation outcomes to understand the variation in the payback period. It is observed that the payback period is close to 60 years but if an annual rebate is considered, the payback period reduces to 20 years. This shows that the FREEDM system has a significant potential which cannot be overlooked. Several direct and indirect benefits arising from the FREEDM system have also been discussed in this thesis.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Let wind rise harnessing bulk energy storage under increasing renewable penetration levels

Description

With growing concern regarding environmental issues and the need for a more sustainable grid, power systems have seen a fast expansion of renewable resources in the last decade. The uncertainty

With growing concern regarding environmental issues and the need for a more sustainable grid, power systems have seen a fast expansion of renewable resources in the last decade. The uncertainty and variability of renewable resources has posed new challenges on system operators. Due to its energy-shifting and fast-ramping capabilities, energy storage (ES) has been considered as an attractive solution to alleviate the increased renewable uncertainty and variability.

In this dissertation, stochastic optimization is utilized to evaluate the benefit of bulk energy storage to facilitate the integration of high levels of renewable resources in transmission systems. A cost-benefit analysis is performed to study the cost-effectiveness of energy storage. A two-step approach is developed to analyze the effectiveness of using energy storage to provide ancillary services. Results show that as renewable penetrations increase, energy storage can effectively compensate for the variability and uncertainty in renewable energy and has increasing benefits to the system.

With increased renewable penetrations, enhanced dispatch models are needed to efficiently operate energy storage. As existing approaches do not fully utilize the flexibility of energy storage, two approaches are developed in this dissertation to improve the operational strategy of energy storage. The first approach is developed using stochastic programming techniques. A stochastic unit commitment (UC) is solved to obtain schedules for energy storage with different renewable scenarios. Operating policies are then constructed using the solutions from the stochastic UC to efficiently operate energy storage across multiple time periods. The second approach is a policy function approach. By incorporating an offline analysis stage prior to the actual operating stage, the patterns between the system operating conditions and the optimal actions for energy storage are identified using a data mining model. The obtained data mining model is then used in real-time to provide enhancement to a deterministic economic dispatch model and improve the utilization of energy storage. Results show that the policy function approach outperforms a traditional approach where a schedule determined and fixed at a prior look-ahead stage is used. The policy function approach is also shown to have minimal added computational difficulty to the real-time market.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Deregulated real-time pricing for the promotion of distributed renewables

Description

This thesis pursues a method to deregulate the electric distribution system and provide support to distributed renewable generation. A locational marginal price is used to determine prices across a distribution

This thesis pursues a method to deregulate the electric distribution system and provide support to distributed renewable generation. A locational marginal price is used to determine prices across a distribution network in real-time. The real-time pricing may provide benefits such as a reduced electricity bill, decreased peak demand, and lower emissions. This distribution locational marginal price (D-LMP) determines the cost of electricity at each node in the electrical network. The D-LMP is comprised of the cost of energy, cost of losses, and a renewable energy premium. The renewable premium is an adjustable function to compensate `green' distributed generation. A D-LMP is derived and formulated from the PJM model, as well as several alternative formulations. The logistics and infrastructure an implementation is briefly discussed. This study also takes advantage of the D-LMP real-time pricing to implement distributed storage technology. A storage schedule optimization is developed using linear programming. Day-ahead LMPs and historical load data are used to determine a predictive optimization. A test bed is created to represent a practical electric distribution system. Historical load, solar, and LMP data are used in the test bed to create a realistic environment. A power flow and tabulation of the D-LMPs was conducted for twelve test cases. The test cases included various penetrations of solar photovoltaics (PV), system networking, and the inclusion of storage technology. Tables of the D-LMPs and network voltages are presented in this work. The final costs are summed and the basic economics are examined. The use of a D-LMP can lower costs across a system when advanced technologies are used. Storage improves system costs, decreases losses, improves system load factor, and bolsters voltage. Solar energy provides many of these same attributes at lower penetrations, but high penetrations have a detrimental effect on the system. System networking also increases these positive effects. The D-LMP has a positive impact on residential customer cost, while greatly increasing the costs for the industrial sector. The D-LMP appears to have many positive impacts on the distribution system but proper cost allocation needs further development.

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Date Created
  • 2011