Matching Items (5)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

135508-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter on TAT-mediated Delivery to the CNS In Vivo

Description

Neurological disorders are difficult to treat with current drug delivery methods due to their inefficiency and the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms behind drug delivery across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising drug delivery method

Neurological disorders are difficult to treat with current drug delivery methods due to their inefficiency and the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms behind drug delivery across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising drug delivery method due to their biocompatibility and ability to be modified by cell penetrating peptides, such as transactivating transciptor (TAT) peptide, which has been shown to increase efficiency of delivery. There are multiple proposed mechanisms of TAT-mediated delivery that also have size restrictions on the molecules that can undergo each BBB crossing mechanism. The effect of nanoparticle size on TAT-mediated delivery in vivo is an important aspect to research in order to better understand the delivery mechanisms and to create more efficient NPs. NPs called FluoSpheres are used because they come in defined diameters unlike polymeric NPs that have a broad distribution of diameters. Both modified and unmodified 100nm and 200nm NPs were able to bypass the BBB and were seen in the brain, spinal cord, liver, and spleen using confocal microscopy and a biodistribution study. Statistically significant differences in delivery rate of the different sized NPs or between TAT-modified and unmodified NPs were not found. Therefore in future work a larger range of diameter size will be evaluated. Also the unmodified NPs will be conjugated with scrambled peptide to ensure that both unmodified and TAT-modified NPs are prepared in identical fashion to better understand the role of size on TAT targeting. Although all the NPs were able to bypass the BBB, future work will hopefully provide a better representation of how NP size effects the rate of TAT-mediated delivery to the CNS.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05

153867-Thumbnail Image.png

Study of photoluminescence from amorphous and crystalline silicon nanoparticles synthesized using a non-thermal plasma

Description

High photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields reported from amorphous (a-Si) and crystalline (c-Si) nanoparticles have opened up lots of possibilities for use of silicon in optical applications such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), photonics and solar cells with added processing and

High photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields reported from amorphous (a-Si) and crystalline (c-Si) nanoparticles have opened up lots of possibilities for use of silicon in optical applications such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), photonics and solar cells with added processing and cost benefits. However, the PL response and the mechanisms behind it are highly dependent on the matrix in which the nanoparticles are grown and on the growth method. While, the bottom-up approach for deposition of free standing nanoparticles seem to be perfectly suited for large area deposition for LED and solar cell applications, the dominant growth techniques (laser ablation and pyrolysis) have been shown to suffer from limitations in control over size distribution of nanoparticles and the requirement of equipment capable of withstanding high temperature. This led to the exploration of plasma based synthesis methods in this work.

Towards this effort, the development and automation of a novel tool “Anny” for synthesis of silicon nanoparticles using non-thermal plasma chamber is reported. These nanoparticles are then accelerated due to choked flow through a nozzle leading to substrate independent deposition. The nanoparticle properties are characterized against precursor gas flow rates and RF power to identify the optimum growth conditions for a stable, continuous deposition. It is found that amorphous nanoparticles offer a wide variety of chamber conditions for growth with a high throughput, stable plasma for continuous, long term operations.

The quantum confinement model for crystalline and spatial confinement models for amorphous nanoparticles in our size regime (6-8nm) are suggested for free standing nanoparticles and we report a high PL output from well passivated amorphous nanoparticles.

The PL output and its dependence on stability of surface hydrogen passivation is explored using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is shown that the amorphous nanoparticles have a better and more stable passivation compared to crystalline nanoparticles grown under similar conditions. Hence, we show a-Si nanoparticles as exciting alternatives for optical applications to c-Si nanoparticles.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

153903-Thumbnail Image.png

Substrate-independent nanomaterial deposition via hypersonic impaction

Description

In the nano-regime many materials exhibit properties that are quite different from their bulk counterparts. These nano-properties have been shown to be useful in a wide range of applications with nanomaterials being used for catalysts, in energy production, as protective

In the nano-regime many materials exhibit properties that are quite different from their bulk counterparts. These nano-properties have been shown to be useful in a wide range of applications with nanomaterials being used for catalysts, in energy production, as protective coatings, and in medical treatment. While there is no shortage of exciting and novel applications, the world of nanomaterials suffers from a lack of large scale manufacturing techniques. The current methods and equipment used for manufacturing nanomaterials are generally slow, expensive, potentially dangerous, and material specific. The research and widespread use of nanomaterials has undoubtedly been hindered by this lack of appropriate tooling. This work details the effort to create a novel nanomaterial synthesis and deposition platform capable of operating at industrial level rates and reliability.

The tool, referred to as Deppy, deposits material via hypersonic impaction, a two chamber process that takes advantage of compressible fluids operating in the choked flow regime to accelerate particles to up several thousand meters per second before they impact and stick to the substrate. This allows for the energetic separation of the synthesis and deposition processes while still behaving as a continuous flow reactor giving Deppy the unique ability to independently control the particle properties and the deposited film properties. While the ultimate goal is to design a tool capable of producing a broad range of nanomaterial films, this work will showcase Deppy's ability to produce silicon nano-particle films as a proof of concept.

By adjusting parameters in the upstream chamber the particle composition was varied from completely amorphous to highly crystalline as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. By adjusting parameters in the downstream chamber significant variation of the film's density was achieved. Further it was shown that the system is capable of making these adjustments in each chamber without affecting the operation of the other.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

157464-Thumbnail Image.png

Nanostructured Approaches to Light Management in Thin Silicon Solar Cells and Silicon-based Tandems

Description

Semiconductor nanostructures are promising building blocks for light management in thin silicon solar cells and silicon-based tandems due their tunable optical properties. The present dissertation is organized along three main research areas: (1) characterization and modeling of III-V nanowires as

Semiconductor nanostructures are promising building blocks for light management in thin silicon solar cells and silicon-based tandems due their tunable optical properties. The present dissertation is organized along three main research areas: (1) characterization and modeling of III-V nanowires as active elements of solar cell tandems, (2) modeling of silicon nanopillars for reduced optical losses in ultra-thin silicon solar cells, and (3) characterization and modeling of nanoparticle-based optical coatings for light management.

First, the recombination mechanisms in polytype GaAs nanowires are studied through photoluminescence measurements coupled with rate equation analysis. When photons are absorbed in polytype nanowires, electrons and holes quickly thermalize to the band-edges of the zinc-blende and wurtzite phases, recombining indirectly in space across the type-II offset. Using a rate equation model, different configurations of polytype defects along the nanowire are investigated, which compare well with experiment considering spatially indirect recombination between different polytypes, and defect-related recombination due to twin planes and other defects. The presented analysis is a path towards predicting the performance of nanowire-based solar cells.

Following this topic, the optical mechanisms in silicon nanopillar arrays are investigated using full-wave optical simulations in comparison to measured reflectance data. The simulated electric field energy density profiles are used to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to the reduced front surface reflectance. Strong forward scattering and resonant absorption are observed for shorter- and longer- aspect ratio nanopillars, respectively, with the sub-wavelength periodicity causing additional diffraction. Their potential for light-trapping is investigated using full-wave optical simulation of an ultra-thin nanostructured substrate, where the conventional light-trapping limit is exceeded for near-bandgap wavelengths.

Finally, the correlation between the optical properties of silicon nanoparticle layers to their respective pore size distributions is investigated using optical and structural characterization coupled with full-wave optical simulation. The presence of

scattering is experimentally correlated to wider pore size distributions obtained from nitrogen adsorption measurements. The correlation is validated with optical simulation of random and clustered structures, with the latter approximating experimental. Reduced structural inhomogeneity in low-refractive-index nanoparticle inter-layers at the metal/semiconductor interface improves their performance as back reflectors, while reducing parasitic absorption in the metal.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

155770-Thumbnail Image.png

Nozzle Design for Vacuum Aerosol Deposition of Nanostructured Coatings

Description

Nanomaterials exhibit unique properties that are substantially different from their bulk counterparts. These unique properties have gained recognition and application for various fields and products including sensors, displays, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices. Aerosol Deposition (AD) is a relatively new

Nanomaterials exhibit unique properties that are substantially different from their bulk counterparts. These unique properties have gained recognition and application for various fields and products including sensors, displays, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices. Aerosol Deposition (AD) is a relatively new method for depositing nanomaterials. AD utilizes a nozzle to accelerate the nanomaterial into a deposition chamber under near-vacuum conditions towards a substrate with which the nanomaterial collides and adheres. Traditional methods for designing nozzles at atmospheric conditions are not well suited for nozzle design for AD methods.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, ANSYS Fluent, is utilized to simulate two-phase flows consisting of a carrier gas (Helium) and silicon nanoparticles. The Cunningham Correction Factor is used to account for non-continuous effects at the relatively low pressures utilized in AD.

The nozzle, referred to herein as a boundary layer compensation (BLC) nozzle, comprises an area-ratio which is larger than traditionally designed nozzles to compensate for the thick boundary layer which forms within the viscosity-affected carrier gas flow. As a result, nanoparticles impact the substrate at velocities up to 300 times faster than the baseline nozzle.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017