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The Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter on TAT-mediated Delivery to the CNS In Vivo

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Neurological disorders are difficult to treat with current drug delivery methods due to their inefficiency and the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms behind drug delivery across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising drug delivery method

Neurological disorders are difficult to treat with current drug delivery methods due to their inefficiency and the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms behind drug delivery across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising drug delivery method due to their biocompatibility and ability to be modified by cell penetrating peptides, such as transactivating transciptor (TAT) peptide, which has been shown to increase efficiency of delivery. There are multiple proposed mechanisms of TAT-mediated delivery that also have size restrictions on the molecules that can undergo each BBB crossing mechanism. The effect of nanoparticle size on TAT-mediated delivery in vivo is an important aspect to research in order to better understand the delivery mechanisms and to create more efficient NPs. NPs called FluoSpheres are used because they come in defined diameters unlike polymeric NPs that have a broad distribution of diameters. Both modified and unmodified 100nm and 200nm NPs were able to bypass the BBB and were seen in the brain, spinal cord, liver, and spleen using confocal microscopy and a biodistribution study. Statistically significant differences in delivery rate of the different sized NPs or between TAT-modified and unmodified NPs were not found. Therefore in future work a larger range of diameter size will be evaluated. Also the unmodified NPs will be conjugated with scrambled peptide to ensure that both unmodified and TAT-modified NPs are prepared in identical fashion to better understand the role of size on TAT targeting. Although all the NPs were able to bypass the BBB, future work will hopefully provide a better representation of how NP size effects the rate of TAT-mediated delivery to the CNS.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Development of a Novel Smart Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Description

Smart contrast agents allow for noninvasive study of specific events or tissue conditions inside of a patient's body using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This research aims to develop and characterize novel smart contrast agents for MRI that respond to temperature

Smart contrast agents allow for noninvasive study of specific events or tissue conditions inside of a patient's body using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This research aims to develop and characterize novel smart contrast agents for MRI that respond to temperature changes in tissue microenvironments. Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and cell culture growth assays were used to characterize the physical, magnetic, and cytotoxic properties of candidate nanoprobes. The nanoprobes displayed thermosensitve MR properties with decreasing relaxivity with temperature. Future work will be focused on generating and characterizing photo-active analogues of the nanoprobes that could be used for both treatment of tissues and assessment of therapy.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Utilization of Nanoparticles for Identifying Fibrin Deposition in Neural Tissue

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The main objective of this research is to develop and characterize a targeted contrast agent that will recognize acute neural injury pathology (i.e. fibrin) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Single chain fragment variable antibodies (scFv) that bind specifically to fibrin

The main objective of this research is to develop and characterize a targeted contrast agent that will recognize acute neural injury pathology (i.e. fibrin) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Single chain fragment variable antibodies (scFv) that bind specifically to fibrin have been produced and purified. DSPE-PEG micelles have been produced and the scFv has been conjugated to the surface of the micelles; this nanoparticle system will be used to overcome limitations in diagnosing TBI. The binding and imaging properties will be analyzed in the future to determine functionality of the nanoparticle system in vivo.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Evaluation of a Novel HDACi-Loaded Nanoparticle Therapy for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability, with approximately 1.7 million incidents reported annually. Following a TBI, patients are likely to sustain sensorimotor and cognitive impairments and are at an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases later

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability, with approximately 1.7 million incidents reported annually. Following a TBI, patients are likely to sustain sensorimotor and cognitive impairments and are at an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases later in life. Despite this, robust therapies that treat TBI neuropathology are not available in the clinic. One emerging therapeutic approach is to target epigenetic mediators that modulate a variety of molecular regulatory events acutely following injury. Specifically, previous studies demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) administration following TBI reduced inflammation, enhanced functional outcomes, and was neuroprotective. Here, we evaluated a novel quisinostat-loaded PLA-PEG nanoparticle (QNP) therapy in treating TBI as modeled by a controlled cortical impact. We evaluated initial pharmacodynamics within the injured cortex via histone acetylation levels following QNP treatment. We observed that QNP administration acutely following injury increased histone acetylation specifically within the injury penumbra, as detected by Western blot analysis. Given this effect, we evaluated QNP therapeutic efficacy. We observed that QNP treatment dampened motor deficits as measured by increased rotarod latency to fall relative to blank nanoparticle- and saline-treated controls. Additionally, open field results show that QNP treatment altered locomotion following injury. These results suggest that HDACi therapies are a beneficial therapeutic strategy following neural injury and demonstrate the utility for nanoparticle formulations as a mode for HDACi delivery following TBI.

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2019-05