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The Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter on TAT-mediated Delivery to the CNS In Vivo

Description

Neurological disorders are difficult to treat with current drug delivery methods due to their inefficiency and the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms behind drug delivery across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising drug delivery method

Neurological disorders are difficult to treat with current drug delivery methods due to their inefficiency and the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms behind drug delivery across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising drug delivery method due to their biocompatibility and ability to be modified by cell penetrating peptides, such as transactivating transciptor (TAT) peptide, which has been shown to increase efficiency of delivery. There are multiple proposed mechanisms of TAT-mediated delivery that also have size restrictions on the molecules that can undergo each BBB crossing mechanism. The effect of nanoparticle size on TAT-mediated delivery in vivo is an important aspect to research in order to better understand the delivery mechanisms and to create more efficient NPs. NPs called FluoSpheres are used because they come in defined diameters unlike polymeric NPs that have a broad distribution of diameters. Both modified and unmodified 100nm and 200nm NPs were able to bypass the BBB and were seen in the brain, spinal cord, liver, and spleen using confocal microscopy and a biodistribution study. Statistically significant differences in delivery rate of the different sized NPs or between TAT-modified and unmodified NPs were not found. Therefore in future work a larger range of diameter size will be evaluated. Also the unmodified NPs will be conjugated with scrambled peptide to ensure that both unmodified and TAT-modified NPs are prepared in identical fashion to better understand the role of size on TAT targeting. Although all the NPs were able to bypass the BBB, future work will hopefully provide a better representation of how NP size effects the rate of TAT-mediated delivery to the CNS.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Direct nose-to-brain delivery of targeted polymeric nanoparticles

Description

There is growing interest in intranasal delivery of therapeutics because of direct nose-to-brain pathways which are able to bypass biological barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), that have historically limited our ability to effectively deliver drugs to the central

There is growing interest in intranasal delivery of therapeutics because of direct nose-to-brain pathways which are able to bypass biological barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), that have historically limited our ability to effectively deliver drugs to the central nervous system (CNS). Since these pathways were first discovered, there has been significant preclinical success in delivering a wide range of therapeutics to the CNS with additional growing efforts to further improve delivery through nanoparticle drug delivery systems. Here we sought to improve intranasal delivery of DiR, a lipophilic small molecule cyanine dye, to the CNS by surface modifying a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle with a short peptide derived from the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG). The specific aims of this thesis were to evaluate administration route-dependent delivery of RVG nanoparticles to the CNS, and to identify anatomical transport pathways by which nanoparticles facilitate transport of small lipophilic molecules. Route-dependent delivery kinetics and distribution were studied by administering DiR loaded nanoparticles to healthy Balb/C mice. Specific tissues were homogenized and the fluorescent intensity of DiR was measured and compared to control tissue spiked with known amounts of dye. While bioavailability of DiR after intranasal administration was near 0% with minimal exposure to peripheral organs, quick and efficient delivery to the CNS was still observed. CNS delivery after intranasal administration was rapid with peak concentrations at 30 minutes post-administration followed by broad clearance by 2 hours. Regional differences of delivery of DiR to the CNS demonstrated engagement of direct nose-to-brain transport pathways with high delivery being observed to the olfactory bulb, brain stem, and trigeminal nerve. RVG modification however presented only modest targeting benefits. In conclusion, the biodistribution of DiR after intranasal administration of DiR loaded nanoparticles showed high potential for the direct nose-to-brain delivery while limiting peripheral exposure of lipophilic small molecule drugs.

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2016-05

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Development of a Novel Smart Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Description

Smart contrast agents allow for noninvasive study of specific events or tissue conditions inside of a patient's body using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This research aims to develop and characterize novel smart contrast agents for MRI that respond to temperature

Smart contrast agents allow for noninvasive study of specific events or tissue conditions inside of a patient's body using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This research aims to develop and characterize novel smart contrast agents for MRI that respond to temperature changes in tissue microenvironments. Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and cell culture growth assays were used to characterize the physical, magnetic, and cytotoxic properties of candidate nanoprobes. The nanoprobes displayed thermosensitve MR properties with decreasing relaxivity with temperature. Future work will be focused on generating and characterizing photo-active analogues of the nanoprobes that could be used for both treatment of tissues and assessment of therapy.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Utilization of Nanoparticles for Identifying Fibrin Deposition in Neural Tissue

Description

The main objective of this research is to develop and characterize a targeted contrast agent that will recognize acute neural injury pathology (i.e. fibrin) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Single chain fragment variable antibodies (scFv) that bind specifically to fibrin

The main objective of this research is to develop and characterize a targeted contrast agent that will recognize acute neural injury pathology (i.e. fibrin) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Single chain fragment variable antibodies (scFv) that bind specifically to fibrin have been produced and purified. DSPE-PEG micelles have been produced and the scFv has been conjugated to the surface of the micelles; this nanoparticle system will be used to overcome limitations in diagnosing TBI. The binding and imaging properties will be analyzed in the future to determine functionality of the nanoparticle system in vivo.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Generation of macromolecule-templated gold nanoparticles by ionizing radiation

Description

Ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays and X-rays, are becoming more widely used. These high-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation are present in nuclear energy, astrophysics, and the medical field. As more and more people have the opportunity to be exposed

Ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays and X-rays, are becoming more widely used. These high-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation are present in nuclear energy, astrophysics, and the medical field. As more and more people have the opportunity to be exposed to ionizing radiation, the necessity for coming up with simple and quick methods of radiation detection is increasing. In this work, two systems were explored for their ability to simply detect ionizing radiation. Gold nanoparticles were formed via radiolysis of water in the presence of Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) and also in the presence of cationic polymers. Gold nanoparticle formation is an indicator of the presence of radiation. The system with ELP was split into two subsystems: those samples including isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and acetone, and those without IPA and acetone. The samples were exposed to certain radiation doses and gold nanoparticles were formed. Gold nanoparticle formation was deemed to have occurred when the sample changed color from light yellow to a red or purple color. Nanoparticle formation was also checked by absorbance measurements. In the cationic polymer system, gold nanoparticles were also formed after exposing the experimental system to certain radiation doses. Unique to the polymer system was the ability of some of the cationic polymers to form gold nanoparticles without the samples being irradiated. Future work to be done on this project is further characterization of the gold nanoparticles formed by both systems.

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Date Created
2012

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Synthesis and characterization of polymer-templated manetic nanoparticles

Description

This research reports on the investigation into the synthesis and stabilization of

iron oxide nanoparticles for theranostic applications using amine-epoxide polymers. Although theranostic agents such as magnetic nanoparticles have been designed and developed for a few decades, there is still more

This research reports on the investigation into the synthesis and stabilization of

iron oxide nanoparticles for theranostic applications using amine-epoxide polymers. Although theranostic agents such as magnetic nanoparticles have been designed and developed for a few decades, there is still more work that needs to be done with the type of materials that can be used to stabilize or functionalize these particles if they are to be used for applications such as drug delivery, imaging and hyperthermia. For in-vivo applications, it is crucial that organic coatings enclose the nanoparticles in order to prevent aggregation and facilitate efficient removal from the body as well as protect the body from toxic material.

The objective of this thesis is to design polymer coated magnetite nanoparticles with polymers that are biocompatible and can stabilize the iron oxide nanoparticle to help create mono-dispersed particles in solution. It is desirable to also have these nanoparticles possess high magnetic susceptibility in response to an applied magnetic field. The co- precipitation method was selected because it is probably the simplest and most efficient chemical pathway to obtain magnetic nanoparticles.

In literature, cationic polymers such as Polyethylenimine (PEI), which is the industry standard, have been used to stabilize IONPs because they can be used in magnetofections to deliver DNA or RNA. PEI however is known to interact very strongly with proteins and is cytotoxic, so as mentioned previously the Iron Oxide nanoparticles

i

(IONPs) synthesized in this study were stabilized with amine-epoxide polymers because of the limitations of PEI.

Four different amine-epoxide polymers which have good water solubility, biodegradability and less toxic than PEI were synthesized and used in the synthesis and stabilization of the magnetic nanoparticles and compared to PEI templated IONPs. These polymer-templated magnetic nanoparticles were also characterized by size, surface charge, Iron oxide content (ICP analysis) and superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID) analysis to determine the magnetization values. TEM images were also used to determine the shape and size of the nanoparticles. All this was done in an effort to choose two or three leads that could be used in future work for magnetofections or drug delivery research.

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Date Created
2014

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Poly(amino ether) based Polymeric and Nanoparticle Systems for Nucleic Acid Delivery and Bioimaging

Description

Gold nanoparticles have emerged as promising nanomaterials for biosensing, imaging, photothermal treatment and therapeutic delivery for several diseases, including cancer. We have generated poly(amino ether)-functionalized gold nanorods (PAE-GNRs) using a layer-by-layer deposition approach. Sub-toxic concentrations of PAE-GNRs were employed to

Gold nanoparticles have emerged as promising nanomaterials for biosensing, imaging, photothermal treatment and therapeutic delivery for several diseases, including cancer. We have generated poly(amino ether)-functionalized gold nanorods (PAE-GNRs) using a layer-by-layer deposition approach. Sub-toxic concentrations of PAE-GNRs were employed to deliver plasmid DNA to prostate cancer cells in vitro. PAE-GNRs generated using 1,4C-1,4Bis, a cationic polymer from our laboratory demonstrated significantly higher transgene expression and exhibited lower cytotoxicities when compared to similar assemblies generated using 25 kDa poly(ethylene imine) (PEI25k-GNRs), a current standard for polymer-mediated gene delivery. Additionally, sub-toxic concentrations of 1,4C-1,4Bis-GNR nanoassemblies were employed to deliver expression vectors that express shRNA ('shRNA plasmid') against firefly luciferase gene in order to knock down expression of the protein constitutively expressed in prostate cancer cells. The roles of poly(amino ether) chemistry and zeta-potential in determining transgene expression efficacies of PAE-GNR assemblies were investigated. The theranostic potential of 1,4C-1,4Bis-GNR nanoassemblies was demonstrated using live cell two-photon induced luminescence bioimaging. The PAE class of polymers was also investigated for the one pot synthesis of both gold and silver nanoparticles using a small library poly(amino ethers) derived from linear-like polyamines. Efficient nanoparticle synthesis dependent on concentration of polymers as well as polymer chemical composition is demonstrated. Additionally, the application of poly(amino ether)-gold nanoparticles for transgene delivery is demonstrated in 22Rv1 and MB49 cancer cell lines. Base polymer, 1,4C-1,4Bis and 1,4C-1,4Bis templated and modified gold nanoparticles were compared for transgene delivery efficacies. Differences in morphology and physiochemical properties were investigated as they relate to differences in transgene delivery efficacy. There were found to be minimal differences suggestion that 1,4C-1,4Bis efficacy is not lost following use for nanoparticle modification. These results indicate that poly(amino ether)-gold nanoassemblies are a promising theranostic platform for delivery of therapeutic payloads capable of simultaneous gene silencing and bioimaging.

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Date Created
2014