Matching Items (6)

A Life Cycle Assessment of Alternative Wastewater Treatment Processes at Forward Operation Bases (FOBs)

Description

The objective of this work is to perform LCAs three wastewater treatement alternatives at battalion-sized (500 soldier) FOBs. Three systems will be explored: traditional wastewater treatment of combined blackwater and

The objective of this work is to perform LCAs three wastewater treatement alternatives at battalion-sized (500 soldier) FOBs. Three systems will be explored: traditional wastewater treatment of combined blackwater and graywater streams using activated sludge and anaerobic digestion (the status quo); MXC treatment of blackwater to produce H2O2 for disinfection of blackwater and graywater; a hybrid system of blackwater treatments with MXCs to produce electricity with graywater disinfection using H2O2 produced offsite. Environmental impacts are assessed using Impact 2002+ midpoint and endpoint categories, primarily reported for human health and environmental impacts. Uncertainity analysis is performed using two techniques. First, a pedigree matrix is developed to identify the highest areas of uncertainties in data. Second, a sensitivity analysis is used to explore the effects on endpoint categories from varying transportation distance, the percentage of wastewater that is reused as nonpotable water, and coagulant doses.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-06-13

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Future of Wastewater Sensing Workshop Guide

Description

The Future of Wastewater Sensing workshop is part of a collaboration between Arizona State University Center for Nanotechnology in Society in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society,

The Future of Wastewater Sensing workshop is part of a collaboration between Arizona State University Center for Nanotechnology in Society in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society, the Biodesign Institute’s Center for Environmental Security, LC Nano, and the Nano-enabled Water Treatment (NEWT) Systems NSF Engineering Research Center. The Future of Wastewater Sensing workshop explores how technologies for studying, monitoring, and mining wastewater and sewage sludge might develop in the future, and what consequences may ensue for public health, law enforcement, private industry, regulations and society at large. The workshop pays particular attention to how wastewater sensing (and accompanying research, technologies, and applications) can be innovated, regulated, and used to maximize societal benefit and minimize the risk of adverse outcomes, when addressing critical social and environmental challenges.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-11-01

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This land is your land, this land is my land: an historical narrative of an intergenerational controversy over public use management of the San Francisco Peaks

Description

The sacred San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona have been at the center of a series of land development controversies since the 1800s. Most recently, a controversy arose over a

The sacred San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona have been at the center of a series of land development controversies since the 1800s. Most recently, a controversy arose over a proposal by the ski area on the Peaks to use 100% reclaimed water to make artificial snow. The current state of the San Francisco Peaks controversy would benefit from a decision-making process that holds sustainability policy at its core. The first step towards a new sustainability-focused deliberative process regarding a complex issue like the San Francisco Peaks controversy requires understanding the issue's origins and the perspectives of the people involved in the issue. My thesis provides an historical analysis of the controversy and examines some of the laws and participatory mechanisms that have shaped the decision-making procedures and power structures from the 19th century to the early 21st century.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Analysis of uncertainty in water management and wastewater-based population health assessments

Description

Uncertainty is inherent in predictive decision-making, both with respect to forecasting plausible future conditions based on a historic record, and with respect to backcasting likely upstream states from downstream observations.

Uncertainty is inherent in predictive decision-making, both with respect to forecasting plausible future conditions based on a historic record, and with respect to backcasting likely upstream states from downstream observations. In the first chapter, I evaluated the status of current water resources management policy in the United States (U.S.) with respect to its integration of projective uncertainty into state-level flooding, drought, supply and demand, and climate guidance. I found uncertainty largely absent and discussed only qualitatively rather than quantitatively. In the second chapter, I turned to uncertainty in the interpretation of downstream observations as indicators of upstream behaviors in the field of Wastewater-Based Epidemiology (WBE), which has made possible the near real-time, yet anonymous, monitoring of public health via measurements of biomarkers excreted to wastewater. I found globally, seasonality of air and soil temperature causes biomarker degradation to vary up to 13-fold over the course of a year, constituting part of the background processes WBE must address, or detrend, prior to decision-making. To determine whether the seasonal change in degradation rates was introducing previously unaccounted for uncertainty with respect to differences in observed summertime and winter-time populations, I evaluated demographic indicators recorded by the Census Bureau for correlation with their distance from all major wastewater treatment plants across the U.S. The analysis identified statistically significant correlation for household income, education attainment, unemployment, military service, and the absence of health insurance. Finally, the model was applied to a city-wide case study to test whether temperature could explain some of the trends observed in monthly observations of two opiate compounds. Modeling suggests some of the monthly changes were attributed to natural temperature fluctuation rather than to trends in the substances’ consumption, and that uncertainty regarding discharge location can dominate even relative observed differences in opiate detections. In summary, my work has found temperature an important modulator of WBE results, influencing both the type of populations observed and the likelihood of upstream behaviors disproportionally magnified or obscured, particularly for the more labile biomarkers. There exists significant potential for improving the understanding of empirical observations via numerical modeling and the application of spatial analysis tools.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Modeling engineered nanoparticles removal by conventional activated sludge treatment process in wastewater treatment plant

Description

The production and applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) has increased rapidly in the last decade, with release of ENM to the environment through the sewer system and municipal wastewater treatment

The production and applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) has increased rapidly in the last decade, with release of ENM to the environment through the sewer system and municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) being of concern. Currently, the literature on ENM release from WWTPs and removal of ENM by WWTPs is insufficient and disorganized. There is little quantitative data on the removal of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphene oxide (GO), or few-layer graphene (FLG), from wastewater onto biomass. The removal of pristine and oxidized MWCNTs (O-MWCNTs), graphene oxide (GO), few-layer graphene (FLG) and Tween™ 20-coated Ag ENM by the interaction with biomass were determined by programmable thermal analysis (PTA) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The removal of pristine and O-MWCNTs was 96% from the water phase via aggregation and 30-min settling in presence or absence of biomass with an initial MWCNT concentration of 25 mg/L. The removal of 25 mg/L GO was 65% with biomass concentration at or above 1,000 mg TSS/L. The removal of 1 mg/L FLG was 16% with 50 mg TSS/L. The removal of Tween™ 20 Ag ENM with concentration from 0.97 mg/L to 2.6 mg/L was from 11% to 92% with biomass concentration of 500 mg TSS/L to 3,000 mg TSS/L, respectively.

A database of ENM removal by biomass was established by analyzing data from published papers, and non-linear solid-liquid distribution functions were built into the database. A conventional activated sludge (CAS) model was built based on a membrane bioreactor (MBR) model from a previous paper. An iterative numeric approach was adapted to the CAS model to calculate the result of non-linear adsorption of ENM by biomass in the CAS process. Kinetic studies of the CAS model showed the model performance changed mostly in the first 10 days after changing influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration, and reached a steady state after 11 days. Over 60% of ENMs which have distribution coefficients in the database reached higher than 50% removal by the CAS model under general operational conditions. This result suggests that traditional WWTP which include the CAS process can remove many known types of ENMs in certain degree.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Environmental releases of neonicotinoid and fipronil insecticides via U.S. wastewater infrastructure

Description

This dissertation is focused on environmental releases from U.S. wastewater infrastructure of recently introduced, mass-produced insecticides, namely neonicotinoids as well as fipronil and its major degradates (sulfone, sulfide, amide, and

This dissertation is focused on environmental releases from U.S. wastewater infrastructure of recently introduced, mass-produced insecticides, namely neonicotinoids as well as fipronil and its major degradates (sulfone, sulfide, amide, and desulfinyl derivatives), jointly known as fiproles. Both groups of compounds recently have caught the attention of regulatory agencies worldwide due to their toxic effects on pollinators and on aquatic invertebrates at very low, part-per-trillion levels (Chapter 1). Mass balance studies conducted for 13 U.S. wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) showed ubiquitous occurrence (3-666 ng/L) and persistence of neonicotinoids (Chapter 2). For the years 2001 through 2016, a longitudinal nationwide study was conducted on the occurrence of fiproles, via analysis of sludge as well as raw and treated wastewater samples. Sludge analysis revealed ubiquitous fiprole occurrence since 2001 (0.2-385 µg/kg dry weight) and a significant increase (2.4±0.3-fold; p<0.005) to elevated levels found both in 2006/7 and 2015/6. This study established a marked persistence of fiproles during both wastewater and sludge treatment, while also identifying non-agricultural uses as a major source of fiprole loading to wastewater (Chapter 3). Eight WWTPs were monitored in Northern California to assess pesticide inputs into San Francisco Bay from wastewater discharge. Per-capita-contaminant-loading calculations identified flea and tick control agents for use on pets as a previously underappreciated source term dominating the mass loading of insecticides to WWTPs in sewage and to the Bay in treated wastewater (Chapter 4). A nationwide assessment of fipronil emissions revealed that pet products, while representing only 22±7% of total fipronil usage (2011-2015), accounted for 86±5% of the mass loading to U.S. surface waters (Chapter 5). In summary, the root cause for considerable annual discharges into U.S. surface waters of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (3,700-5,500 kg/y) and of fipronil related compounds (1,600-2,400 kg/y) is domestic rather than agricultural insecticide use. Reclaimed effluent from U.S. WWTPs contained insecticide levels that exceed toxicity benchmarks for sensitive aquatic invertebrates in 83% of cases for imidacloprid and in 67% of cases for fipronil. Recommendations are provided on how to limit toxic inputs in the future.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017