Matching Items (4)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

157739-Thumbnail Image.png

Comparative transport of E. coli and Legionella in 2-dimensional porous media tank

Description

The study was to analyze the extent of bacterial transport in a two-dimensional tank under saturated conditions. The experiments were done in a 2-D tank packed with 3,700 in3 of fine grained, homogenous, chemically inert sand under saturated conditions. The

The study was to analyze the extent of bacterial transport in a two-dimensional tank under saturated conditions. The experiments were done in a 2-D tank packed with 3,700 in3 of fine grained, homogenous, chemically inert sand under saturated conditions. The tank used for transport was decontaminated by backwashing with 0.6% chlorine solution with subsequent backwashing with chlorine-neutral water (tap water and Na2S2O3) thus ensuring no residual chlorine in the tank. The transport of bacteria was measured using samples collected from ports at vertical distances of 5, 15 and 25 inches (12.7, 38.1 and 63.5 cm) from the surface of the sand on both sides for the 2-D tank. An influent concentration of 105 CFU/mL was set as a baseline for both microbes and the percolation rate was set at 11.37 inches/day using a peristaltic pump at the bottom outlet. At depths of 5, 15 and 25 inches, E. coli breakthroughs were recorded at 5, 17 and 28 hours for the ports on the right side and 7, 17 and 29 hours for the ports on the left sides, respectively. At respective distances Legionella breakthroughs were recorded at 8, 22 and 35 hours for the ports on the right side and 9, 24, 36 hours for the ports on the left side, respectively which is homologous to its pleomorphic nature. A tracer test was done and the visual breakthroughs were recorded at the same depths as the microbes. The breakthroughs for the dye at depths of 5, 15 and 25 inches, were recorded at 13.5, 41 and 67 hours for the ports on the right side and 15, 42.5 and 69 hours for the ports on the left side, respectively. However, these are based on visual estimates and the physical breakthrough could have happened at the respective heights before the reported times. This study provided a good basis for the premise that transport of bacterial cells and chemicals exists under recharge practices.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

157581-Thumbnail Image.png

Geochemical analysis of the leachate generated after zero valent metals addition to municipal solid waste

Description

Zero-Valent Metals (ZVM) are highly reactive materials and have been proved to be effective in contaminant reduction in soils and groundwater remediation. In fact, zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) has proven to be very effective in removing, particularly chlorinated organics, heavy metals,

Zero-Valent Metals (ZVM) are highly reactive materials and have been proved to be effective in contaminant reduction in soils and groundwater remediation. In fact, zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) has proven to be very effective in removing, particularly chlorinated organics, heavy metals, and odorous sulfides. Addition of ZVI has also been proved in enhancing the methane gas generation in anaerobic digestion of activated sludge. However, no studies have been conducted regarding the effect of ZVM stimulation to Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) degradation. Therefore, a collaborative study was developed to manipulate microbial activity in the landfill bioreactors to favor methane production by adding ZVMs. This study focuses on evaluating the effects of added ZVM on the leachate generated from replicated lab scale landfill bioreactors. The specific objective was to investigate the effects of ZVMs addition on the organic and inorganic pollutants in leachate. The hypothesis here evaluated was that adding ZVM including ZVI and Zero Valent Manganese (ZVMn) will enhance the removal rates of the organic pollutants present in the leachate, likely by a putative higher rate of microbial metabolism. Test with six (4.23 gallons) bioreactors assembled with MSW collected from the Salt River Landfill and Southwest Regional Landfill showed that under 5 grams /liter of ZVI and 0.625 grams/liter of ZVMn additions, no significant difference was observed in the pH and temperature data of the leachate generated from these reactors. The conductivity data suggested the steady rise across all reactors over the period of time. The removal efficiency of sCOD was highest (27.112 mg/lit/day) for the reactors added with ZVMn at the end of 150 days for bottom layer, however the removal rate was highest (16.955 mg/lit/day) for ZVI after the end of 150 days of the middle layer. Similar trends in the results was observed in TC analysis. HPLC study indicated the dominance of the concentration of heptanoate and isovalerate were leachate generated from the bottom layer across all reactors. Heptanoate continued to dominate in the ZVMn added leachate even after middle layer injection. IC analysis concluded the chloride was dominant in the leachate generated from all the reactors and there was a steady increase in the chloride content over the period of time. Along with chloride, fluoride, bromide, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and sulfate were also detected in considerable concentrations. In the summary, the addition of the zero valent metals has proved to be efficient in removal of the organics present in the leachate.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

155850-Thumbnail Image.png

Transport of bacteria, viruses and a visual tracer in a saturated 2-dimensional porous media model

Description

This study was designed to provide insight into microbial transport kinetics which might be applied to bioremediation technology development and prevention of groundwater susceptibility to pathogen contamination. Several pilot-scale experiments were conducted in a saturated, 2 dimensional, packed porous media

This study was designed to provide insight into microbial transport kinetics which might be applied to bioremediation technology development and prevention of groundwater susceptibility to pathogen contamination. Several pilot-scale experiments were conducted in a saturated, 2 dimensional, packed porous media tank to investigate the transport of Escherichia coli bacteria, P22 bacteriophage, and a visual tracer and draw comparisons and/or conclusions. A constructed tank was packed with an approximate 3,700 cubic inches (in3) of a fine grained, homogeneous, chemically inert sand which allowed for a controlled system. Sampling ports were located at 5, 15, 25, and 25 vertical inches from the base of the 39 inch saturated zone and were used to assess the transport of the selected microorganisms. Approximately 105 cells of E. coli or P22 were injected into the tank and allowed to move through the media at approximately 10.02 inches per day. Samples were collected intermittently after injection based off of an estimated sampling schedule established from the visual tracer.

The results suggest that bacteriophages pass through soil faster and with greater recovery than bacteria. P22 in the tank reservoir experienced approximately 1 log reduction after 36 hours. After 85 hours, P22 was still detected in the reservoir after experiencing a 2 log reduction from the start of the experiment. E. coli either did not reach the outlet or died before sampling, while P22 was able to be recovered. Bacterial breakthrough curves were produced for the microbial indicators and illustrate the peak concentrations found for each sampling port. For E. coli, concentrations at the 5 inch port peaked at a maximum of 5170 CFU/mL, and eventually at the 25 inch port at a maximum of 90 CFU/mL. It is presumed that E. coli might have experienced significant filtration, straining and attachment, while P22 might have experienced little adsorption and instead was transported rapidly in long distances and was able to survive for the duration of the experiment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

158657-Thumbnail Image.png

Quantification of Soil Organic Matter as Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons by GC-FID in Non-Contaminated Soils

Description

Soil impacts from crude oil spills in the United States are regulated at the state level using the analytical group total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as the primary regulatory metric. TPH concentration in soil is used to enforce and verify

Soil impacts from crude oil spills in the United States are regulated at the state level using the analytical group total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as the primary regulatory metric. TPH concentration in soil is used to enforce and verify compliance with cleanup levels (CULs). While there are significant differences between states concerning TPH CULs based on land use, most states enforce an action level of 100 mg TPH kg⁻1. The most common standard method for quantification of TPH in soils is EPA Method 8015, which entails extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons by dichloromethane and analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Using Method 8015 or similar methods, TPH is defined as the cumulative area of all peaks within a defined analytical range (typically C6-C36). A limitation of TPH standard methods is their lack of specificity for petroleum hydrocarbons (i.e., these methods can also detect and quantify compounds that are an inherent part of natural soil organic matter (SOM)). While the interference of SOM compounds with TPH quantification is known, documentation regarding the extent of this interference is almost absent in the peer-reviewed literature. In this thesis, 15 biogeochemically-diverse soils, uncontaminated by crude oil hydrocarbons, were sampled from geographically diverse locations and investigated in an effort to determine the concentration of SOM that registers as TPH. Solvent extractions using dichloromethane or n-pentane in conjunction with GC-FID analysis showed that all soils had detectable concentrations of TPH ranging from 160 to 2700 mg TPH kg–1. Based on the results from this study, it can be concluded that many soils have a higher apparent TPH concentration than most US state-level CULs. In addition, the data from this study show that soils with a lower pH and/or a higher organic carbon content also have higher concentrations of apparent TPH. Findings from this thesis show that uncontaminated soils have a significant apparent TPH concentration that would be considered part of the TPH originating from contamination and should be accounted for in the regulatory landscape.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020