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Characterization of DOC in "Accidental" Urban Wetlands in Phoenix, AZ

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Accidental wetlands have been created on the bed of the Salt River and are fed by storm-water outfalls discharging at various sections of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. Water discharges from these outfalls throughout the year, during both dry conditions (base

Accidental wetlands have been created on the bed of the Salt River and are fed by storm-water outfalls discharging at various sections of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. Water discharges from these outfalls throughout the year, during both dry conditions (base flow) and during rain events (storm flow). In this study, DOC content and composition was studied during these two flow conditions, in the outfalls and along the wetland flow path. The importance of DOC lies in its role in transporting carbon via water movement, between different parts of a landscape, and therefore between pools in the ecosystem. Urbanization has influenced content and composition of DOC entering the accidental urban wetland via outfalls as they represent watersheds from different areas in Phoenix. First, DOC load exhibited higher quantities during stormflow compared to baseflow conditions. Second, DOC load and fluorescence analysis outcomes concluded the outfalls are different from each other. The inputs of water on the north side of the channel represent City of Phoenix watersheds were similar to each other and had high DOC load. The northern outfalls are both different in load and composition from the outfall pipe on the southern bank of the wetland as it represents South Mountain watershed. Fluorescence analysis results also concluded compositional changes occurred along the wetland flow path during both stormflow and baseflow conditions. In this study, it was explored how urbanization and the associated changes in hydrology and geomorphology have affected a desert wetland's carbon content.

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Date Created
2016-05

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An Analysis of Craft Labor Productivity

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Productivity in the construction industry is an essential measure of production efficiency and economic progress, quantified by craft laborers' time spent directly adding value to a project. In order to better understand craft labor productivity as an aspect of lean

Productivity in the construction industry is an essential measure of production efficiency and economic progress, quantified by craft laborers' time spent directly adding value to a project. In order to better understand craft labor productivity as an aspect of lean construction, an activity analysis was conducted at the Arizona State University Palo Verde Main engineering dormitory construction site in December of 2016. The objective of this analysis on craft labor productivity in construction projects was to gather data regarding the efficiency of craft labor workers, make conclusions about the effects of time of day and other site-specific factors on labor productivity, as well as suggest improvements to implement in the construction process. Analysis suggests that supporting tasks, such as traveling or materials handling, constitute the majority of craft labors' efforts on the job site with the highest percentages occurring at the beginning and end of the work day. Direct work and delays were approximately equal at about 20% each hour with the highest peak occurring at lunchtime between 10:00 am and 11:00 am. The top suggestion to improve construction productivity would be to perform an extensive site utilization analysis due to the confined nature of this job site. Despite the limitations of an activity analysis to provide a complete prospective of all the factors that can affect craft labor productivity as well as the small number of days of data acquisition, this analysis provides a basic overview of the productivity at the Palo Verde Main construction site. Through this research, construction managers can more effectively generate site plans and schedules to increase labor productivity.

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2016-12