Matching Items (36)

My Kingdom for a Toolsmith! The IRIDIUM System Specification Through the Lens of Actor-Network Theory

Description

Most would agree that telecommunications systems are socially constructed. Since communication tends to involve people, it seems obvious that people should impact the creation of such systems. But it is far

Most would agree that telecommunications systems are socially constructed. Since communication tends to involve people, it seems obvious that people should impact the creation of such systems. But it is far less obvious that the specifications for such systems should be noted for their social construction. As marvelous and technical as the system is, we must not forget the important technological artifact known as the specification that came before it. This paper tells the story of the social construction of the IRIDIUM system specification as viewed through the eyes of a popular socio-technical systems (STS) analysis tool. Actor-Network Theory (ANT) is employed to elucidate the culture of the Motorola requirements engineering process while describing some of the primary actors and their lively interactions as they strove diligently to produce the “perfect” specification. Throughout, it will become obvious that just as the kingdom was lost “for want of a nail,” so the IRIDIUM system specification was nearly lost for want of a toolsmith.

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Novel directional protection sheme for the FREEDM smart grid system

Description

This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level

This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Wireless network design and optimization: from social awareness to security

Description

A principal goal of this dissertation is to study wireless network design and optimization with the focus on two perspectives: 1) socially-aware mobile networking and computing; 2) security and privacy

A principal goal of this dissertation is to study wireless network design and optimization with the focus on two perspectives: 1) socially-aware mobile networking and computing; 2) security and privacy in wireless networking. Under this common theme, this dissertation can be broadly organized into three parts.

The first part studies socially-aware mobile networking and computing. First, it studies random access control and power control under a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework. The socially-aware Nash equilibria (SNEs) are derived and analyzed. Then, it studies mobile crowdsensing under an incentive mechanism that exploits social trust assisted reciprocity (STAR). The efficacy of the STAR mechanism is thoroughly investigated. Next, it studies mobile users' data usage behaviors under the impact of social services and the wireless operator's pricing. Based on a two-stage Stackelberg game formulation, the user demand equilibrium (UDE) is analyzed in Stage II and the optimal pricing strategy is developed in Stage I. Last, it studies opportunistic cooperative networking under an optimal stopping framework with two-level decision-making. For both cases with or without dedicated relays, the optimal relaying strategies are derived and analyzed.

The second part studies radar sensor network coverage for physical security. First, it studies placement of bistatic radar (BR) sensor networks for barrier coverage. The optimality of line-based placement is analyzed, and the optimal placement of BRs on a line segment is characterized. Then, it studies the coverage of radar sensor networks that exploits the Doppler effect. Based on a Doppler coverage model, an efficient method is devised to characterize Doppler-covered regions and an algorithm is developed to find the minimum radar density required for Doppler coverage.

The third part studies cyber security and privacy in socially-aware networking and computing. First, it studies random access control, cooperative jamming, and spectrum access under an extended SGUM framework that incorporates negative social ties. The SNEs are derived and analyzed. Then, it studies pseudonym change for personalized location privacy under the SGUM framework. The SNEs are analyzed and an efficient algorithm is developed to find an SNE with desirable properties.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Scheduled medium access control in mobile ad hoc networks

Description

The primary function of the medium access control (MAC) protocol is managing access to a shared communication channel. From the viewpoint of transmitters, the MAC protocol determines each transmitter's persistence,

The primary function of the medium access control (MAC) protocol is managing access to a shared communication channel. From the viewpoint of transmitters, the MAC protocol determines each transmitter's persistence, the fraction of time it is permitted to spend transmitting. Schedule-based schemes implement stable persistences, achieving low variation in delay and throughput, and sometimes bounding maximum delay. However, they adapt slowly, if at all, to changes in the network. Contention-based schemes are agile, adapting quickly to changes in perceived contention, but suffer from short-term unfairness, large variations in packet delay, and poor performance at high load. The perfect MAC protocol, it seems, embodies the strengths of both contention- and schedule-based approaches while avoiding their weaknesses. This thesis culminates in the design of a Variable-Weight and Adaptive Topology Transparent (VWATT) MAC protocol. The design of VWATT first required answers for two questions: (1) If a node is equipped with schedules of different weights, which weight should it employ? (2) How is the node to compute the desired weight in a network lacking centralized control? The first question is answered by the Topology- and Load-Aware (TLA) allocation which defines target persistences that conform to both network topology and traffic load. Simulations show the TLA allocation to outperform IEEE 802.11, improving on the expectation and variation of delay, throughput, and drop rate. The second question is answered in the design of an Adaptive Topology- and Load-Aware Scheduled (ATLAS) MAC that computes the TLA allocation in a decentralized and adaptive manner. Simulation results show that ATLAS converges quickly on the TLA allocation, supporting highly dynamic networks. With these questions answered, a construction based on transversal designs is given for a variable-weight topology transparent schedule that allows nodes to dynamically and independently select weights to accommodate local topology and traffic load. The schedule maintains a guarantee on maximum delay when the maximum neighbourhood size is not too large. The schedule is integrated with the distributed computation of ATLAS to create VWATT. Simulations indicate that VWATT offers the stable performance characteristics of a scheduled MAC while adapting quickly to changes in topology and traffic load.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

New multi-nodal wireless communication system method

Description

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method of dividing wireless communication (such as the 802.11a/b/g
and cellular UMTS MAC protocols) across multiple unreliable communication links

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method of dividing wireless communication (such as the 802.11a/b/g
and cellular UMTS MAC protocols) across multiple unreliable communication links (such as Ethernet). The purpose is to introduce the appropriate hardware, software, and system architecture required to provide the basis for a wireless system (using a 802.11a/b/g
and cellular protocols as a model) that can scale to support thousands of users simultaneously (say in a large office building, super chain store, etc.) or in a small, but very dense communication RF region. Elements of communication between a base station and a Mobile Station will be analyzed statistically to demonstrate higher throughput, fewer collisions and lower bit error rates (BER) with the given bandwidth defined by the 802.11n wireless specification (use of MIMO channels will be evaluated). A new network nodal paradigm will be presented. Alternative link layer communication techniques will be recommended and analyzed for the affect on mobile devices. The analysis will describe how the algorithms used by state machines implemented on Mobile Stations and Wi-Fi client devices will be influenced by new base station transmission behavior. New hardware design techniques that can be used to optimize this architecture as well as hardware design principles in regard to the minimal hardware functional blocks required to support such a system design will be described. Hardware design and verification simulation techniques to prove the hardware design will accommodate an acceptable level of performance to meet the strict timing as it relates to this new system architecture.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Network interdependence and information dynamics in cyber-physical systems

Description

The cyber-physical systems (CPS) are emerging as the underpinning technology for major industries in the 21-th century. This dissertation is focused on two fundamental issues in cyber-physical systems: network interdependence

The cyber-physical systems (CPS) are emerging as the underpinning technology for major industries in the 21-th century. This dissertation is focused on two fundamental issues in cyber-physical systems: network interdependence and information dynamics. It consists of the following two main thrusts. The first thrust is targeted at understanding the impact of network interdependence. It is shown that a cyber-physical system built upon multiple interdependent networks are more vulnerable to attacks since node failures in one network may result in failures in the other network, causing a cascade of failures that would potentially lead to the collapse of the entire infrastructure. There is thus a need to develop a new network science for modeling and quantifying cascading failures in multiple interdependent networks, and to develop network management algorithms that improve network robustness and ensure overall network reliability against cascading failures. To enhance the system robustness, a "regular" allocation strategy is proposed that yields better resistance against cascading failures compared to all possible existing strategies. Furthermore, in view of the load redistribution feature in many physical infrastructure networks, e.g., power grids, a CPS model is developed where the threshold model and the giant connected component model are used to capture the node failures in the physical infrastructure network and the cyber network, respectively. The second thrust is centered around the information dynamics in the CPS. One speculation is that the interconnections over multiple networks can facilitate information diffusion since information propagation in one network can trigger further spread in the other network. With this insight, a theoretical framework is developed to analyze information epidemic across multiple interconnecting networks. It is shown that the conjoining among networks can dramatically speed up message diffusion. Along a different avenue, many cyber-physical systems rely on wireless networks which offer platforms for information exchanges. To optimize the QoS of wireless networks, there is a need to develop a high-throughput and low-complexity scheduling algorithm to control link dynamics. To that end, distributed link scheduling algorithms are explored for multi-hop MIMO networks and two CSMA algorithms under the continuous-time model and the discrete-time model are devised, respectively.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Stochastic optimization and real-time scheduling in cyber-physical systems

Description

A principal goal of this dissertation is to study stochastic optimization and real-time scheduling in cyber-physical systems (CPSs) ranging from real-time wireless systems to energy systems to distributed control systems.

A principal goal of this dissertation is to study stochastic optimization and real-time scheduling in cyber-physical systems (CPSs) ranging from real-time wireless systems to energy systems to distributed control systems. Under this common theme, this dissertation can be broadly organized into three parts based on the system environments. The first part investigates stochastic optimization in real-time wireless systems, with the focus on the deadline-aware scheduling for real-time traffic. The optimal solution to such scheduling problems requires to explicitly taking into account the coupling in the deadline-aware transmissions and stochastic characteristics of the traffic, which involves a dynamic program that is traditionally known to be intractable or computationally expensive to implement. First, real-time scheduling with adaptive network coding over memoryless channels is studied, and a polynomial-time complexity algorithm is developed to characterize the optimal real-time scheduling. Then, real-time scheduling over Markovian channels is investigated, where channel conditions are time-varying and online channel learning is necessary, and the optimal scheduling policies in different traffic regimes are studied. The second part focuses on the stochastic optimization and real-time scheduling involved in energy systems. First, risk-aware scheduling and dispatch for plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) are studied, aiming to jointly optimize the EV charging cost and the risk of the load mismatch between the forecasted and the actual EV loads, due to the random driving activities of EVs. Then, the integration of wind generation at high penetration levels into bulk power grids is considered. Joint optimization of economic dispatch and interruptible load management is investigated using short-term wind farm generation forecast. The third part studies stochastic optimization in distributed control systems under different network environments. First, distributed spectrum access in cognitive radio networks is investigated by using pricing approach, where primary users (PUs) sell the temporarily unused spectrum and secondary users compete via random access for such spectrum opportunities. The optimal pricing strategy for PUs and the corresponding distributed implementation of spectrum access control are developed to maximize the PU's revenue. Then, a systematic study of the nonconvex utility-based power control problem is presented under the physical interference model in ad-hoc networks. Distributed power control schemes are devised to maximize the system utility, by leveraging the extended duality theory and simulated annealing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Coding for insertion/deletion channels

Description

Insertion and deletion errors represent an important category of channel impairments. Despite their importance and much work over the years, channels with such impairments are far from being fully understood

Insertion and deletion errors represent an important category of channel impairments. Despite their importance and much work over the years, channels with such impairments are far from being fully understood as they proved to be difficult to analyze. In this dissertation, a promising coding scheme is investigated over independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) insertion/deletion channels, i.e., interleaved concatenation of an outer low-density parity-check (LDPC) code with error-correction capabilities and an inner marker code for synchronization purposes. Marker code structures which offer the highest achievable rates are found with standard bit-level synchronization is performed. Then, to exploit the correlations in the likelihoods corresponding to different transmitted bits, a novel symbol-level synchronization algorithm that works on groups of consecutive bits is introduced. Extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts are also utilized to analyze the convergence behavior of the receiver, and to design LDPC codes with degree distributions matched to these channels. The next focus is on segmented deletion channels. It is first shown that such channels are information stable, and hence their channel capacity exists. Several upper and lower bounds are then introduced in an attempt to understand the channel capacity behavior. The asymptotic behavior of the channel capacity is also quantified when the average bit deletion rate is small. Further, maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) based synchronization algorithms are developed and specific LDPC codes are designed to match the channel characteristics. Finally, in addition to binary substitution errors, coding schemes and the corresponding detection algorithms are also studied for several other models with synchronization errors, including inter-symbol interference (ISI) channels, channels with multiple transmit/receive elements and multi-user communication systems.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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CMOS integrated power amplifiers for RF reconfigurable and digital transmitters

Description

This dissertation focuses on three different efficiency enhancement methods that are applicable to handset applications. These proposed designs are based on three critical requirements for handset application: 1) Small form

This dissertation focuses on three different efficiency enhancement methods that are applicable to handset applications. These proposed designs are based on three critical requirements for handset application: 1) Small form factor, 2) CMOS compatibility and 3) high power handling. The three presented methodologies are listed below:

1) A transformer-based power combiner architecture for out-phasing transmitters

2) A current steering DAC-based average power tracking circuit for on-chip power amplifiers (PA)

3) A CMOS-based driver stage for GaN-based switched-mode power amplifiers applicable to fully digital transmitters

This thesis highlights the trends in wireless handsets, the motivates the need for fully-integrated CMOS power amplifier solutions and presents the three novel techniques for reconfigurable and digital CMOS-based PAs. Chapter 3, presents the transformer-based power combiner for out-phasing transmitters. The simulation results reveal that this technique is able to shrink the power combiner area, which is one of the largest parts of the transmitter, by about 50% and as a result, enhances the output power density by 3dB.

The average power tracking technique (APT) integrated with an on-chip CMOS-based power amplifier is explained in Chapter 4. This system is able to achieve up to 32dBm saturated output power with a linear power gain of 20dB in a 45nm CMOS SOI process. The maximum efficiency improvement is about ∆η=15% compared to the same PA without APT. Measurement results show that the proposed method is able to amplify an enhanced-EDGE modulated input signal with a data rate of 70.83kb/sec and generate more than 27dBm of average output power with EVM<5%.

Although small form factor, high battery lifetime, and high volume integration motivate the need for fully digital CMOS transmitters, the output power generated by this type of transmitter is not high enough to satisfy the communication standards. As a result, compound materials such as GaN or GaAs are usually being used in handset applications to increase the output power. Chapter 5 focuses on the analysis and design of two CMOS based driver architectures (cascode and house of cards) for driving a GaN power amplifier. The presented results show that the drivers are able to generate ∆Vout=5V, which is required by the compound transistor, and operate up to 2GHz. Since the CMOS driver is expected to drive an off-chip capacitive load, the interface components, such as bond wires, and decoupling and pad capacitors, play a critical role in the output transient response. Therefore, extensive analysis and simulation results have been done on the interface circuits to investigate their effects on RF transmitter performance. The presented results show that the maximum operating frequency when the driver is connected to a 4pF capacitive load is about 2GHz, which is perfectly matched with the reported values in prior literature.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Distributed inference over multiple-access channels with wireless sensor networks

Description

Distributed inference has applications in fields as varied as source localization, evaluation of network quality, and remote monitoring of wildlife habitats. In this dissertation, distributed inference algorithms over multiple-access channels

Distributed inference has applications in fields as varied as source localization, evaluation of network quality, and remote monitoring of wildlife habitats. In this dissertation, distributed inference algorithms over multiple-access channels are considered. The performance of these algorithms and the effects of wireless communication channels on the performance are studied. In a first class of problems, distributed inference over fading Gaussian multiple-access channels with amplify-and-forward is considered. Sensors observe a phenomenon and transmit their observations using the amplify-and-forward scheme to a fusion center (FC). Distributed estimation is considered with a single antenna at the FC, where the performance is evaluated using the asymptotic variance of the estimator. The loss in performance due to varying assumptions on the limited amounts of channel information at the sensors is quantified. With multiple antennas at the FC, a distributed detection problem is also considered, where the error exponent is used to evaluate performance. It is shown that for zero-mean channels between the sensors and the FC when there is no channel information at the sensors, arbitrarily large gains in the error exponent can be obtained with sufficient increase in the number of antennas at the FC. In stark contrast, when there is channel information at the sensors, the gain in error exponent due to having multiple antennas at the FC is shown to be no more than a factor of 8/π for Rayleigh fading channels between the sensors and the FC, independent of the number of antennas at the FC, or correlation among noise samples across sensors. In a second class of problems, sensor observations are transmitted to the FC using constant-modulus phase modulation over Gaussian multiple-access-channels. The phase modulation scheme allows for constant transmit power and estimation of moments other than the mean with a single transmission from the sensors. Estimators are developed for the mean, variance and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the sensor observations. The performance of these estimators is studied for different distributions of the observations. It is proved that the estimator of the mean is asymptotically efficient if and only if the distribution of the sensor observations is Gaussian.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010