Matching Items (36)

My Kingdom for a Toolsmith! The IRIDIUM System Specification Through the Lens of Actor-Network Theory

Description

Most would agree that telecommunications systems are socially constructed. Since communication tends to involve people, it seems obvious that people should impact the creation of such systems. But it is far less obvious that the specifications for such systems should be

Most would agree that telecommunications systems are socially constructed. Since communication tends to involve people, it seems obvious that people should impact the creation of such systems. But it is far less obvious that the specifications for such systems should be noted for their social construction. As marvelous and technical as the system is, we must not forget the important technological artifact known as the specification that came before it. This paper tells the story of the social construction of the IRIDIUM system specification as viewed through the eyes of a popular socio-technical systems (STS) analysis tool. Actor-Network Theory (ANT) is employed to elucidate the culture of the Motorola requirements engineering process while describing some of the primary actors and their lively interactions as they strove diligently to produce the “perfect” specification. Throughout, it will become obvious that just as the kingdom was lost “for want of a nail,” so the IRIDIUM system specification was nearly lost for want of a toolsmith.

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New multi-nodal wireless communication system method

Description

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method of dividing wireless communication (such as the 802.11a/b/g
and cellular UMTS MAC protocols) across multiple unreliable communication links (such as Ethernet). The purpose is to introduce the appropriate

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method of dividing wireless communication (such as the 802.11a/b/g
and cellular UMTS MAC protocols) across multiple unreliable communication links (such as Ethernet). The purpose is to introduce the appropriate hardware, software, and system architecture required to provide the basis for a wireless system (using a 802.11a/b/g
and cellular protocols as a model) that can scale to support thousands of users simultaneously (say in a large office building, super chain store, etc.) or in a small, but very dense communication RF region. Elements of communication between a base station and a Mobile Station will be analyzed statistically to demonstrate higher throughput, fewer collisions and lower bit error rates (BER) with the given bandwidth defined by the 802.11n wireless specification (use of MIMO channels will be evaluated). A new network nodal paradigm will be presented. Alternative link layer communication techniques will be recommended and analyzed for the affect on mobile devices. The analysis will describe how the algorithms used by state machines implemented on Mobile Stations and Wi-Fi client devices will be influenced by new base station transmission behavior. New hardware design techniques that can be used to optimize this architecture as well as hardware design principles in regard to the minimal hardware functional blocks required to support such a system design will be described. Hardware design and verification simulation techniques to prove the hardware design will accommodate an acceptable level of performance to meet the strict timing as it relates to this new system architecture.

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Created

Date Created
2014

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On the ordering of communication channels

Description

This dissertation introduces stochastic ordering of instantaneous channel powers of fading channels as a general method to compare the performance of a communication system over two different channels, even when a closed-form expression for the metric may not be available.

This dissertation introduces stochastic ordering of instantaneous channel powers of fading channels as a general method to compare the performance of a communication system over two different channels, even when a closed-form expression for the metric may not be available. Such a comparison is with respect to a variety of performance metrics such as error rates, outage probability and ergodic capacity, which share common mathematical properties such as monotonicity, convexity or complete monotonicity. Complete monotonicity of a metric, such as the symbol error rate, in conjunction with the stochastic Laplace transform order between two fading channels implies the ordering of the two channels with respect to the metric. While it has been established previously that certain modulation schemes have convex symbol error rates, there is no study of the complete monotonicity of the same, which helps in establishing stronger channel ordering results. Toward this goal, the current research proves for the first time, that all 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional modulations have completely monotone symbol error rates. Furthermore, it is shown that the frequently used parametric fading distributions for modeling line of sight exhibit a monotonicity in the line of sight parameter with respect to the Laplace transform order. While the Laplace transform order can also be used to order fading distributions based on the ergodic capacity, there exist several distributions which are not Laplace transform ordered, although they have ordered ergodic capacities. To address this gap, a new stochastic order called the ergodic capacity order has been proposed herein, which can be used to compare channels based on the ergodic capacity. Using stochastic orders, average performance of systems involving multiple random variables are compared over two different channels. These systems include diversity combining schemes, relay networks, and signal detection over fading channels with non-Gaussian additive noise. This research also addresses the problem of unifying fading distributions. This unification is based on infinite divisibility, which subsumes almost all known fading distributions, and provides simplified expressions for performance metrics, in addition to enabling stochastic ordering.

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Date Created
2014

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Novel directional protection sheme for the FREEDM smart grid system

Description

This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for

This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

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Created

Date Created
2015

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On code design for interference channels

Description

There has been a lot of work on the characterization of capacity and achievable rate regions, and rate region outer-bounds for various multi-user channels of interest. Parallel to the developed information theoretic results, practical codes have also been designed for

There has been a lot of work on the characterization of capacity and achievable rate regions, and rate region outer-bounds for various multi-user channels of interest. Parallel to the developed information theoretic results, practical codes have also been designed for some multi-user channels such as multiple access channels, broadcast channels and relay channels; however, interference channels have not received much attention and only a limited amount of work has been conducted on them. With this motivation, in this dissertation, design of practical and implementable channel codes is studied focusing on multi-user channels with special emphasis on interference channels; in particular, irregular low-density-parity-check codes are exploited for a variety of cases and trellis based codes for short block length designs are performed.

Novel code design approaches are first studied for the two-user Gaussian multiple access channel. Exploiting Gaussian mixture approximation, new methods are proposed wherein the optimized codes are shown to improve upon the available designs and off-the-shelf point-to-point codes applied to the multiple access channel scenario. The code design is then examined for the two-user Gaussian interference channel implementing the Han-Kobayashi encoding and decoding strategy. Compared with the point-to-point codes, the newly designed codes consistently offer better performance. Parallel to this work, code design is explored for the discrete memoryless interference channels wherein the channel inputs and outputs are taken from a finite alphabet and it is demonstrated that the designed codes are superior to the single user codes used with time sharing. Finally, the code design principles are also investigated for the two-user Gaussian interference channel employing trellis-based codes with short block lengths for the case of strong and mixed interference levels.

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Date Created
2015

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Design and performance analysis of fiber wireless networks

Description

A Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) network integrates a passive optical network (PON) with wireless mesh networks (WMNs) to provide high speed backhaul via the PON while offering the flexibility and mobility of a WMN. Generally, increasing the size of a WMN leads

A Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) network integrates a passive optical network (PON) with wireless mesh networks (WMNs) to provide high speed backhaul via the PON while offering the flexibility and mobility of a WMN. Generally, increasing the size of a WMN leads to higher wireless interference and longer packet delays. The partitioning of a large WMN into several smaller WMN clusters, whereby each cluster is served by an Optical Network Unit (ONU) of the PON, is examined. Existing WMN throughput-delay analysis techniques considering the mean load of the nodes at a given hop distance from a gateway (ONU) are unsuitable for the heterogeneous nodal traffic loads arising from clustering. A simple analytical queuing model that considers the individual node loads to accurately characterize the throughput-delay performance of a clustered FiWi network is introduced. The accuracy of the model is verified through extensive simulations. It is found that with sufficient PON bandwidth, clustering substantially improves the FiWi network throughput-delay performance by employing the model to examine the impact of the number of clusters on the network throughput-delay performance. Different traffic models and network designs are also studied to improve the FiWi network performance.

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Date Created
2015

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Efficient routing and resource sharing mechanisms for hybrid optical-wireless access networks

Description

The integration of passive optical networks (PONs) and wireless mesh networks (WMNs) into Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) networks has recently emerged as a promising strategy for

providing flexible network services at relative high transmission rates. This work investigates the effectiveness of localized routing

The integration of passive optical networks (PONs) and wireless mesh networks (WMNs) into Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) networks has recently emerged as a promising strategy for

providing flexible network services at relative high transmission rates. This work investigates the effectiveness of localized routing that prioritizes transmissions over the local gateway to the optical network and avoids wireless packet transmissions in radio zones that do not contain the packet source or destination. Existing routing schemes for FiWi networks consider mainly hop-count and delay metrics over a flat WMN node topology and do not specifically prioritize the local network structure. The combination of clustered and localized routing (CluLoR) performs better in terms of throughput-delay compared to routing schemes that are based on minimum hop-count which do not consider traffic localization. Subsequently, this work also investigates the packet delays when relatively low-rate traffic that has traversed a wireless network is mixed with conventional high-rate PON-only traffic. A range of different FiWi network architectures with different dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) mechanisms is considered. The grouping of the optical network units (ONUs) in the double-phase polling (DPP) DBA mechanism in long-range (order of 100~Km) FiWi networks is closely examined, and a novel grouping by cycle length (GCL) strategy that achieves favorable packet delay performance is introduced. At the end, this work proposes a novel backhaul network architecture based on a Smart Gateway (Sm-GW) between the small cell base stations (e.g., LTE eNBs) and the conventional backhaul gateways, e.g., LTE Servicing/Packet Gateway (S/P-GW). The Sm-GW accommodates flexible number of small cells while reducing the infrastructure requirements at the S-GW of LTE backhaul. In contrast to existing methods, the proposed Sm-GW incorporates the scheduling mechanisms to achieve the network fairness while sharing the resources among all the connected small cells base stations.

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Created

Date Created
2016

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Coding for insertion/deletion channels

Description

Insertion and deletion errors represent an important category of channel impairments. Despite their importance and much work over the years, channels with such impairments are far from being fully understood as they proved to be difficult to analyze. In this

Insertion and deletion errors represent an important category of channel impairments. Despite their importance and much work over the years, channels with such impairments are far from being fully understood as they proved to be difficult to analyze. In this dissertation, a promising coding scheme is investigated over independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) insertion/deletion channels, i.e., interleaved concatenation of an outer low-density parity-check (LDPC) code with error-correction capabilities and an inner marker code for synchronization purposes. Marker code structures which offer the highest achievable rates are found with standard bit-level synchronization is performed. Then, to exploit the correlations in the likelihoods corresponding to different transmitted bits, a novel symbol-level synchronization algorithm that works on groups of consecutive bits is introduced. Extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts are also utilized to analyze the convergence behavior of the receiver, and to design LDPC codes with degree distributions matched to these channels. The next focus is on segmented deletion channels. It is first shown that such channels are information stable, and hence their channel capacity exists. Several upper and lower bounds are then introduced in an attempt to understand the channel capacity behavior. The asymptotic behavior of the channel capacity is also quantified when the average bit deletion rate is small. Further, maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) based synchronization algorithms are developed and specific LDPC codes are designed to match the channel characteristics. Finally, in addition to binary substitution errors, coding schemes and the corresponding detection algorithms are also studied for several other models with synchronization errors, including inter-symbol interference (ISI) channels, channels with multiple transmit/receive elements and multi-user communication systems.

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Date Created
2012

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Multi-user diversity systems with application to cognitive radio

Description

This thesis aims to investigate the capacity and bit error rate (BER) performance of multi-user diversity systems with random number of users and considers its application to cognitive radio systems. Ergodic capacity, normalized capacity, outage capacity, and average bit error

This thesis aims to investigate the capacity and bit error rate (BER) performance of multi-user diversity systems with random number of users and considers its application to cognitive radio systems. Ergodic capacity, normalized capacity, outage capacity, and average bit error rate metrics are studied. It has been found that the randomization of the number of users will reduce the ergodic capacity. A stochastic ordering framework is adopted to order user distributions, for example, Laplace transform ordering. The ergodic capacity under different user distributions will follow their corresponding Laplace transform order. The scaling law of ergodic capacity with mean number of users under Poisson and negative binomial user distributions are studied for large mean number of users and these two random distributions are ordered in Laplace transform ordering sense. The ergodic capacity per user is defined and is shown to increase when the total number of users is randomized, which is the opposite to the case of unnormalized ergodic capacity metric. Outage probability under slow fading is also considered and shown to decrease when the total number of users is randomized. The bit error rate (BER) in a general multi-user diversity system has a completely monotonic derivative, which implies that, according to the Jensen's inequality, the randomization of the total number of users will decrease the average BER performance. The special case of Poisson number of users and Rayleigh fading is studied. Combining with the knowledge of regular variation, the average BER is shown to achieve tightness in the Jensen's inequality. This is followed by the extension to the negative binomial number of users, for which the BER is derived and shown to be decreasing in the number of users. A single primary user cognitive radio system with multi-user diversity at the secondary users is proposed. Comparing to the general multi-user diversity system, there exists an interference constraint between secondary and primary users, which is independent of the secondary users' transmission. The secondary user with high- est transmitted SNR which also satisfies the interference constraint is selected to communicate. The active number of secondary users is a binomial random variable. This is then followed by a derivation of the scaling law of the ergodic capacity with mean number of users and the closed form expression of average BER under this situation. The ergodic capacity under binomial user distribution is shown to outperform the Poisson case. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to supplement our analytical results and compare the performance of different user distributions.

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Date Created
2012

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Distributed inference using bounded transmissions

Description

Distributed inference has applications in a wide range of fields such as source localization, target detection, environment monitoring, and healthcare. In this dissertation, distributed inference schemes which use bounded transmit power are considered. The performance of the proposed schemes are

Distributed inference has applications in a wide range of fields such as source localization, target detection, environment monitoring, and healthcare. In this dissertation, distributed inference schemes which use bounded transmit power are considered. The performance of the proposed schemes are studied for a variety of inference problems. In the first part of the dissertation, a distributed detection scheme where the sensors transmit with constant modulus signals over a Gaussian multiple access channel is considered. The deflection coefficient of the proposed scheme is shown to depend on the characteristic function of the sensing noise, and the error exponent for the system is derived using large deviation theory. Optimization of the deflection coefficient and error exponent are considered with respect to a transmission phase parameter for a variety of sensing noise distributions including impulsive ones. The proposed scheme is also favorably compared with existing amplify-and-forward (AF) and detect-and-forward (DF) schemes. The effect of fading is shown to be detrimental to the detection performance and simulations are provided to corroborate the analytical results. The second part of the dissertation studies a distributed inference scheme which uses bounded transmission functions over a Gaussian multiple access channel. The conditions on the transmission functions under which consistent estimation and reliable detection are possible is characterized. For the distributed estimation problem, an estimation scheme that uses bounded transmission functions is proved to be strongly consistent provided that the variance of the noise samples are bounded and that the transmission function is one-to-one. The proposed estimation scheme is compared with the amplify and forward technique and its robustness to impulsive sensing noise distributions is highlighted. It is also shown that bounded transmissions suffer from inconsistent estimates if the sensing noise variance goes to infinity. For the distributed detection problem, similar results are obtained by studying the deflection coefficient. Simulations corroborate our analytical results. In the third part of this dissertation, the problem of estimating the average of samples distributed at the nodes of a sensor network is considered. A distributed average consensus algorithm in which every sensor transmits with bounded peak power is proposed. In the presence of communication noise, it is shown that the nodes reach consensus asymptotically to a finite random variable whose expectation is the desired sample average of the initial observations with a variance that depends on the step size of the algorithm and the variance of the communication noise. The asymptotic performance is characterized by deriving the asymptotic covariance matrix using results from stochastic approximation theory. It is shown that using bounded transmissions results in slower convergence compared to the linear consensus algorithm based on the Laplacian heuristic. Simulations corroborate our analytical findings. Finally, a robust distributed average consensus algorithm in which every sensor performs a nonlinear processing at the receiver is proposed. It is shown that non-linearity at the receiver nodes makes the algorithm robust to a wide range of channel noise distributions including the impulsive ones. It is shown that the nodes reach consensus asymptotically and similar results are obtained as in the case of transmit non-linearity. Simulations corroborate our analytical findings and highlight the robustness of the proposed algorithm.

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Date Created
2013