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Experimental Measurements of Power Output of a Cu/Cu2+ Thermogalvanic Brick using Effective Electrode Surface Area Alterations

Description

The research analyzes the transformation of wasted thermal energy into a usable form through thermogalvanic devices. This technology helps mitigate international growing energy demands. Building energy efficiency is a critical research topic, since the loads account for 40% of all

The research analyzes the transformation of wasted thermal energy into a usable form through thermogalvanic devices. This technology helps mitigate international growing energy demands. Building energy efficiency is a critical research topic, since the loads account for 40% of all energy demand in developed nations, and 30% in less developed nations. A significant portion of the energy consumed for heating and cooling, where a majority is dissipated to the ambient as waste heat. This research answers how much power output (µW·cm-2) can the thermogalvanic brick experimentally produce from an induced temperature gradient? While there are multiple avenues for the initial and optimized prototype design, one key area of interest relating to thermogalvanic devices is the effective surface area of the electrodes. This report highlights the experimental power output measurements of a Cu/Cu2+ thermogalvanic brick by manipulating the effective surface area of the electrodes. Across three meshes, the maximum power output normalized for temperature was found to be between 2.13-2.87 x 10-3 μWcm-2K-2. The highest normalized power output corresponded to the mesh with the highest effective surface area, which was classified as the fine mesh. This intuitively aligned with the theoretical understanding of surface area and maximum power output, where decreasing the activation resistance also reduces the internal resistance, which increases the theoretical maximum power.

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2019-05

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Modeling and Testing of a CubeSat Attitude Control System

Description

Accurate pointing is essential for any space mission with an imaging payload. The Phoenix Cubesat mission is being designed to take thermal images of major US cities from Low Earth Orbit in order to study the Urban Heat Island effect.

Accurate pointing is essential for any space mission with an imaging payload. The Phoenix Cubesat mission is being designed to take thermal images of major US cities from Low Earth Orbit in order to study the Urban Heat Island effect. Accurate pointing is vital to ensure mission success, so the satellite's Attitude Determination and Control System, or ADCS, must be properly tested and calibrated on the ground to ensure that it performs to its requirements. A commercial ADCS unit, the MAI-400, has been selected for this mission. The expected environmental disturbances must be characterized and modeled in order to inform planning the operations of this system. Appropriate control gains must also be selected to ensure the optimal satellite response. These gains are derived through a system model in Simulink and its response optimization tool, and these gains are then tested in a supplier provided Dynamic Simulator.

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2018-05

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A Survey of Modern Gridded Ion Propulsion Systems and Their Development and Applications in Future Space Missions

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This paper studies the history and development of ion propulsion systems and survey past, present, and developing technology with their applications to space missions. This analysis addresses the physical design parameters and process that is a part of designing and

This paper studies the history and development of ion propulsion systems and survey past, present, and developing technology with their applications to space missions. This analysis addresses the physical design parameters and process that is a part of designing and optimizing a gridded ion thruster. It also identifies operational limits that may be associated with solar-powered ion propulsion systems and posits plausible solutions or alternatives to remedy such limitations. These topics are presented with the intent of reviewing how ion propulsion technology evolved in its journey to develop to today's systems, and to facilitate thought and discussion on where further development of ion propulsion systems can be directed.

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2018-05

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Validation of Active Pixel Sensors to Develop Enhanced Star Trackers

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Active pixel sensors hold a lot of promise for space applications in star tracking because of their effectiveness against radiation, small size, and on-chip processing. The research focus is on documenting and validating ground test equipment for these types of

Active pixel sensors hold a lot of promise for space applications in star tracking because of their effectiveness against radiation, small size, and on-chip processing. The research focus is on documenting and validating ground test equipment for these types of sensors. Through demonstrating the utility of a commercial sensor, the research will be able to work on ensuring the accuracy of ground tests. This contribution allows for future research on improving active pixel sensor performance.

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2018-05

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Performance Modeling of a Concentrating Photovoltaic Two-Axis Tracker

Description

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of angle of acceptance and mechanical control system noise on the power available to a two-axis solar concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. The efficiency of a solar CPV system is greatly

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of angle of acceptance and mechanical control system noise on the power available to a two-axis solar concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. The efficiency of a solar CPV system is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the tracking system because a strong focal point is needed to concentrate incident solar irradiation on the small, high efficiency cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate and quantify tracking accuracy for a performance model which would apply to similar two-axis systems. An analysis comparing CPV to traditional solar photovoltaics from an economic standpoint was conducted as well to evaluate the viability of emerging CPV technology. The research was performed using two calibrated solar radiation sensors mounted on the plane of the tracking system, normal to the sun. One sensor is held at a constant, normal angle (0 degrees) and the other is varied by a known interior angle in the range of 0 degrees to 10 degrees. This was to study the magnitude of the decrease in in irradiance as the angle deviation increases. The results show that, as the interior angle increases, the solar irradiance and thus available power available on the focal point will decrease roughly at a parabolic rate, with a sharp cutoff point at angles greater than 5 degrees. These findings have a significant impact on CPV system tracking mechanisms, which require high precision tracking in order to perform as intended.

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2017-05

Metallurgical Test Comparison of Aerospace Material using Additive Manufacturing Technologies vs. Wrought Technologies

Description

The aerospace industry has been conducting research on the additive manufacturing (AM) process since the 1980's, but companies have recently just begun to apply AM in hopes that this new technology will meet or exceed the requirements met by previous

The aerospace industry has been conducting research on the additive manufacturing (AM) process since the 1980's, but companies have recently just begun to apply AM in hopes that this new technology will meet or exceed the requirements met by previous manufacturing methods, as well as producing more cost effective, geometrically-complex products. This investigation evaluated the performance of 3D-printed aerospace test specimens made by Powder Bed Fusion Technologies, and compared them to forged specimens. A design of experiments varying build parameters was conducted in order to determine AM component porosity. Factors such as powder post-processing, directionality of the build, and fractology of the samples were evaluated through tensile strength testing and hardness testing of Inconel 718 wrought and EBM printed materials. Using electron microsopy, the responses to these factors were analyzed for stress fractures, grain boundaries, and other defects that occurred in the testing process. The comparison determined which metallurgical process provides the most effective material for aircraft usage.

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2017-05

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Design of a Gravity-Fed Hydrodynamic Testing Tunnel

Description

The purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of a water tunnel designed to meet certain constraints. The project goals are to tailor a design for a given location, and to produce a repeatable design sizing and shape

The purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of a water tunnel designed to meet certain constraints. The project goals are to tailor a design for a given location, and to produce a repeatable design sizing and shape process for specified constraints. The primary design goals include a 1 m/s flow velocity in a 30cm x 30cm test section for 300 seconds. Secondary parameters, such as system height, tank height, area contraction ratio, and roof loading limits, may change depending on preference, location, or environment. The final chosen configuration is a gravity fed design with six major components: the reservoir tank, the initial duct, the contraction nozzle, the test section, the exit duct, and the variable control exit nozzle. Important sizing results include a minimum water weight of 60,000 pounds, a system height of 7.65 meters, a system length of 6 meters (not including the reservoir tank), a large shallow reservoir tank width of 12.2 meters, and height of 0.22 meters, and a control nozzle exit radius range of 5.25 cm to 5.3 cm. Computational fluid dynamic simulation further supports adherence to the design constraints but points out some potential areas for improvement in dealing with flow irregularities. These areas include the bends in the ducts, and the contraction nozzle. Despite those areas recommended for improvement, it is reasonable to conclude that the design and process fulfill the project goals.

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2014-05

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Feasibility Study of the Integration of Asphalt Heat Energy Power Generation for Heat Mitigation Purposes at Arizona State University

Description

The heat island effect has resulted in an observational increase in averave ambient as well as surface temperatures and current photovoltaic implementation do not migitate this effect. Thus, the feasibility and performance of alternative solutions are explored and determined using theoretical, computational data.

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2014-05

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Design of Rocket Engine Nozzle Ejectors

Description

This work describes the numerical process developed for use of rocket engine nozzle ejectors. Ejector nozzles, while applied to jet engines extensively, have not been applied to rockets, and have great potential to improve the performance of endoatmospheric rocket propulsion

This work describes the numerical process developed for use of rocket engine nozzle ejectors. Ejector nozzles, while applied to jet engines extensively, have not been applied to rockets, and have great potential to improve the performance of endoatmospheric rocket propulsion systems. Utilizing the low pressure, high velocity flow in the plume, this secondary structure entrains a secondary mass flow to increase the mass flow of the propulsion system. Rocket engine nozzle ejectors must be designed with the high supersonic conditions associated with rocket engines. These designs rely on the numerical process described in this paper.

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2014-05

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Generating Electricity from Kinetic Energy in Gym Equipment

Description

As society's energy crisis continues to become more imminent many industries and niches are seeking a new, sustainable and renewable source of electricity production. Similar to solar, wind and tidal energy, kinetic energy has the potential to generate electricity as

As society's energy crisis continues to become more imminent many industries and niches are seeking a new, sustainable and renewable source of electricity production. Similar to solar, wind and tidal energy, kinetic energy has the potential to generate electricity as an extremely renewable source of energy generation. While stationary bicycles can generate small amounts of electricity, the idea behind this project was to expand energy generation into the more common weight lifting side of exercising. The method for solving this problem was to find the average amount of power generated per user on a Smith machine and determine how much power was available from an accompanying energy generator. The generator consists of three phases: a copper coil and magnet generator, a full wave bridge rectifying circuit and a rheostat. These three phases working together formed a fully functioning controllable generator. The resulting issue with the kinetic energy generator was that the system was too inefficient to serve as a viable system for electricity generation. The electrical production of the generator only saved about 2 cents per year based on current Arizona electricity rates. In the end it was determined that the project was not a sustainable energy generation system and did not warrant further experimentation.

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2014-05