Matching Items (82)
- All Subjects: Sustainability
- All Subjects: Primary Care
- Member of: Programs and Communities
- Member of: School of Sustainability Graduate Culminating Experiences
Human behavior is driving many sustainability problems, which means that resolving these issues will require far more people to participate in solutions and act in sustainable ways. However, there is a recognized gap between knowledge and action that remains a significant barrier in achieving transformative sustainability solutions. One way to overcome the knowledge-action gap is to engage more people in place-based experiential learning centered around sustainability. In partnership with Hawai‘i Tropical Bioreserve & Garden (HTBG), we set out to learn about utilizing place-based experiential learning to engage a wider audience to actively participate in sustainability solutions. We researched place-based learning, experiential learning, sustainability education, and behavior change theory. We also conducted several informational interviews with experts in environmental education, STEM, and sustainability science to better understand what is needed for designing meaningful educational experiences that inspire action. We used this research to develop an easily understandable and scalable place-based experiential learning framework that can teach learners about any sustainability challenge or solution. Overall, we found that when grounded in behavior change theory and sustainability principles, place-based experiential learning has the potential to mobilize large groups of people to actively participate in sustainability solutions.
Islands are some of the smallest contributors to global carbon emissions, yet are among the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change (e.g. rising sea levels, extreme storms, and declining fish populations due to warming seas). At the same time, due to their smaller scale and local limitations on resources, island communities have been driving adaptation efforts for responding to the impacts of climate change based on their lived experiences and indigenous knowledge. Recognizing that local community members are in the best position to advance sustainability solutions in their respective island communities, our project sought to uncover best practices of islands that are collaboratively working with their communities to promote sustainable development and adapt to climate change, while leading the way in measuring progress on the SDGs. To this end, we interviewed island leaders from Hawaii, Guam, and Tasmania, who have already launched strategies for achieving these goals, and combined their experiences into a framework requested by other island leaders to encourage locally-driven, culturally-relevant green growth initiatives in partnership with our project partner, the Local2030 Islands Network (Local2030IN). Through designing the framework, we learned 17 possible actions islands can take when developing their own green growth initiative, key insights for implementing the SDGs on islands, and how to work alongside a project partner to create a final deliverable.
Primary health care clinics are essential first defenders determined to confront the upsurge in health-related leading causes of death in the United States. Unfortunately, the underserved or uninsured community continues to struggle to access these vital health care services. Consequently, this vulnerable population seeks venues such as community services events to obtain these unmet primary care services. Community services events effectively disseminate health-related material and provide access to vital medical services. Currently, community services strive to bridge the gap between underserved individuals and primary care clinics by providing participants referrals for low-fee or free clinics to establish ongoing care. A lack of data exists on whether these events sufficiently impact the participants to motivate them to follow-up with a health care clinic. A critical appraisal of evidence showed that follow-up adherence rates are remarkably improved by directly referring participants to a primary clinic during a community services event. This paper explores the effect on health outcomes and health disparities when establishing connections between community services participants and ongoing healthcare services.
Completion of advance directives (AD) prevent unwanted care. It is clear that systematic integration of AD documentation in primary care practices can lead to less intrusion of patient autonomy, and remove a source or moral injury and ethical ambiguity for providers, family and caregivers. The purpose of this project was to examine the effect of an evidence-based AD completion activity on AD completion rates in a rural, primary-care clinic. The theory of self-determination (SDT) guided the project as SDT describes why and how persons are motivated to engage in acts of self-determination. Recruitment was self-selective as all clients aged 18 years or older had access and opportunity to available PREPARE.org materials to complete a state specific AD in English or Spanish on site. Each patient of the clinic signed the site-specific consent form authorizing release of information for study use. Project data was collected via chart audits using a pre/post intervention design. Results indicate that passively providing AD materials, even in a multiple languages and formats is not enough to engage self-motivation to complete an AD. This attempt to improve AD completion in primary care reflects the larger body of knowledge; interpersonal communication is needed to stimulate relatedness and improved competence, the two precursors of acts of self-determination, as outlined by SDT.
Background/Purpose: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the pediatric population is a global epidemic. Rapid weight gain in early childhood exacerbates risk factors for obesity, chronic disease in adulthood, and disqualifies 31% of American youth from serving in the Armed Forces. Although the pediatric dependents weight crisis reflects the national dilemma, there are inconsistencies in provider knowledge, limited access to evidence-based, weight management intervention, and treatment options. This paper will assess provider needs, identify opportunity to improve practice, and process used in weight management in the clinic.
Method: Eight military and four civilian pediatric and family practice providers completed a 16-item needs assessment survey. The survey was distributed via email using an online survey tool, and a printed version was provided to those who had not completed it online. Data was collected over 8 weeks and a descriptive analysis of content was done using the Intellectus software.
Results: Although the response rate was 88.9%, it was lower than anticipated due to COVID-19 related military deployments. Descriptive data were obtained on a variety of provider needs and practices. Results provided valuable information on current attitudes of providers. Providers demonstrated a significant need for a multidisciplinary support team including a dietician and more time dedicated to weight management at office visits. At least 50% of providers have had motivational interviewing training and report that they apply these techniques as part of an intervention in patient’s weight management care.
Implication: Data supports overweight and obesity care practice changes in the clinic. Areas identified by providers included the need for further training and clinic management support including the availability of a pediatric dietician added to the healthcare team.
Objective: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder among children. Research has shown that young girls are underserved in diagnosing and treating ADHD or never diagnosed compared males. Utilizing the Health Promotion Model, this project aims to determine if primary care providers are aware of sex differences in ADHD and if a brief education on sex differences in ADHD affects the primary care setting's screening rate.
Design/Methods: With the Arizona institutional review Boards' approval, primary care providers (PCP) in a Southwest family practice in Arizona (n=35) are provided with virtual education on sex differences in ADHD. Pre- post-intervention surveys were electronically administered to five PCPS. Data were deidentified. A two-tailed paired t-test was conducted to examine the mean difference of responses.
Results: Analysis of responses demonstrate that primary care providers are well aware of sex differences in ADHD but screened less for ADHD before the education intervention. Major themes emerged from provider comments on ADHD symptom recognition, time constraints, and increased screening to identify girls in the primary setting. A significant increase in ADHD screening is seen four weeks post-intervention t(4) = -6.32, p = .003.
Conclusion: Future research is needed to identify other factors that could strengthen ADHD screening during well-child visits overall. Also, the use of a pediatric screener which can highlight inattentive symptoms would assist in the process of identifying girls with ADHD.
Aging out of Pediatrics: Preparing Adolescents for Health Care Transition Using Illustration-based Anticipatory Guidance
Health care transition (HCT) for adolescents without special health care needs in the primary care setting has received inadequate attention, as represented by national surveys, when compared to adolescents with special health care needs. Barriers to transition such as lack of knowledge and preparation have been known to hinder HCT despite the knowledge gap and weak evidence related to non-special needs adolescent transition. Application of anticipatory guidance education related to care transition may improve transition readiness scores of adolescents without special health care needs.
Utilizing Meleis’ transition theory with the Plan-Do-Study-Act framework, a quasi-experimental study was conducted comparing transition readiness scores between baseline and intervention groups of adolescents 14 years or older attending their well checks at a small pediatric primary care site. The intervention consisted of two videos developed from Got TransitionTM's (n.d.) Six Core Elements for specific adolescent age ranges.
Statistical analysis reveals that the subgroup and overall transition readiness scores for both age groups, 14-15 and 16-18 years of age, when comparing the baseline groups to the intervention groups, have mixed significance (p = .419, p = .074, respectively). However, when asking the respondents about their understanding of the transition process and their role in that process, 75% and 62.5%, respectively, at minimum agreed the intervention was helpful.
The findings were mixed, indicating the educational videos did have a short-term impact on adolescent transition readiness scores for the 16-18 years old group only. Future focus on long-term follow up throughout the adolescent period may yield better data.
Vision impairment has affected 2.2 billion people globally, with 12 million people affected in the United States; more than 700,000 Californians experience visual impairment or blindness (VI/B). Causes of VI/B can be prevented with early identification and intervention. This project aims to identify perspectives of the VI/B, use this insight to build and improve the knowledge/skills of the primary care provider (PCP). A quantitative study, utilizing the Theory of Interpersonal Relations alongside the Star Model of Knowledge Transformation, incorporated pre-intervention questionnaires for the VI/B and the intention of pre- and post-intervention questionnaire for the PCP. After consenting, the VI/B completed the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 (α = 0.87) and Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (α = 0.95) surveys via telephone. An interventional video discussing visual acuity and screening, legal blindness versus visually impaired, leading causes of blindness, common ophthalmic drops and their side effects, helpful hints, and resources for the visually impaired was created. Deidentified results were analyzed with descriptive analysis and Pearson correlation. Currently, 30 voluntary, consented VI/B members have completed the pre-surveys. The overall average patient satisfaction score was 46.73 with financial aspect and communication with the most positive evaluation. Unfortunately, their PCPs have not responded. The PCP questionnaire will be distributed to the ophthalmologist partner’s healthcare organization. The needs of VI/B community are poorly identified and addressed in primary care; thus, the educational video was created to address the perceived gaps. Improved provider knowledge and enhanced patient care can enhance patient satisfaction with the delivery of care.
Improving End-of-Life Care in the Primary Care Setting: Implementation of the Serious Illness Care Program
Early and effective end-of-life care are associated with increased quality of life for those patients who may be nearing the end-of-life (EOL). However, evidence suggests that most non-palliative healthcare providers lack the skills and confidence to initiate EOL conversations. Consequently, about 70% of Americans would prefer to die at home with their families, yet only 25% die according to their wishes (State of California Department of Justice, n.d). In alignment with the Peaceful End of Life Theory, the purpose of this evidence-based project is to increase primary healthcare providers’ level of skills and confidence in end-of-life discussions.
This project utilized a pre and post study design. A total of 11 participants were recruited using convenience sampling from three primary care clinics in Phoenix, Arizona. Due to the small sample size and assumption of a non-normal distribution of the data, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. There were clinical and statistical significant improvements in the EOL knowledge of the participants after the implementation of the two-and-a-half-hour Serious Illness Care Program (Z = -2.950, p = .003) with a large effect size (r = -0.62).
The project evaluation also demonstrated that most participants deemed that the intervention was effective. A brief and systematic education session, such as the SICP can be utilized to improve non-palliative healthcare providers’ skills in having more and effective end-of-life conversations.
The chronic nature of substance use disorder requires continuity of care after residential treatment. Only a small proportion of patients, however, adhere to aftercare follow-up plans and the relapse rates remain between 40- 80% within a year post-discharge. Synthesis of evidence showed that facilitated referral (FR) significantly increased follow- up adherence and resulted to positive outcomes. The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of FR in improving access, follow-up adherence and engagement to aftercare services, and relapse rate after a month post- discharge.
After the Institutional Review Board approval, 30 participants were recruited in two residential treatment facilities. Questionnaires, the Assessment of Warning Signs of Relapse and Health leads surveys were utilized to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, McNemar, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results showed that FR significantly increased access to many community aftercare services (p<.05). A significant reduction in relapse risk post-intervention was also noted (Z= -3.180, p= .001). Additionally, most participants discharged with scheduled appointments followed-up and had continued engagement with aftercare services. Eight participants maintained sobriety and 18 were lost to follow-up a month post-discharge, while four relapsed in the facility.
Overall, FR increased access to needed aftercare services and significantly decreased the relapse percentage risk post-discharge. FR is a promising intervention that can be implemented for practice. Future research is recommended to further examine the correlation with follow-up adherence and continuous engagement to aftercare services, and relapse rate at 30 days after discharge.