Matching Items (5)

Urban Infrastructure Design and Heat Vulnerability: Rethinking Infrastructure in Mesa, Arizona

Description

As the number of heat waves are expected to increase significantly into the future in the U.S. Southwest, new insight is needed into how urban infrastructure can be repositioned to

As the number of heat waves are expected to increase significantly into the future in the U.S. Southwest, new insight is needed into how urban infrastructure can be repositioned to protect people. In the Phoenix metro area infrastructure have largely been deployed over the past half century, during a time when climate change was not a concern. Now, as the county struggles to protect people from heat, there is a need to reassess how existing and new infrastructure can be positioned to reduce health impacts while improving sustainability. Using a neighborhood in Mesa, Arizona as a case study, we assess how changes to transportation infrastructure, building infrastructure, and landscaping can reduce heat exposure. A number of strategies are considered including the optimal deployment of heat refuges, deploying less convective surface materials, and deploying more thermally preferable building materials. The suite of strategies could be considered by cities throughout the Phoenix metro area.

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Performance, modeling, and characteristics of LFP pack for HEV using FUDS (depleting) in hot and arid conditions

Description

There was a growing trend in the automotive market on the adoption of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) for consumers to purchase. This was partially due to external pressures such

There was a growing trend in the automotive market on the adoption of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) for consumers to purchase. This was partially due to external pressures such as the effects of global warming, cost of petroleum, governmental regulations, and popularity of the vehicle type. HEV technology relied on a variety of factors which included the powertrain (PT) of the system, external driving conditions, and the type of driving pattern being driven. The core foundation for HEVs depended heavily on the battery pack and chemistry being adopted for the vehicle performance and operations. This paper focused on the effects of hot and arid temperatures on the performance of LiFePO4 (LFP) battery packs and presented a possible modeling method for overall performance.

Lithium-ion battery (LIB) packs were subjected to room and high temperature settings while being cycled under a current profile created from a drive cycle. The Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) was selected and modified to simulate normal city driving situation using an electric only drive mode. Capacity and impedance fade of the LIB packs were monitored over the lifetime of the pack to determine the overall performance through the variables of energy and power fade. Regression analysis was done on the energy and power fade of the LIB pack to determine the duration life of LIB packs for HEV applications. This was done by comparing energy and power fade with the average lifetime mileage of a vehicle.

The collected capacity and impedance data was used to create an electrical equivalent model (EEM). The model was produced through the process of a modified Randles circuit and the creation of the inverse constant phase element (ICPE). Results indicated the model had a potential for high fidelity as long as a sufficient amount of data was gathered. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed on a fresh and cycled LFP battery. SEM results suggested a dramatic growth on LFP crystals with a reduction in carbon coating after cycling. XRD effects showed a slight uniformed strain and decrease in size of LFP olivine crystals after cycling.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Modeling and calibration of a MEMS tensile stage for elevated temperature experiments on freestanding metallic thin films

Description

Mechanical behavior of metallic thin films at room temperature (RT) is relatively well characterized. However, measuring the high temperature mechanical properties of thin films poses several challenges. These include ensuring

Mechanical behavior of metallic thin films at room temperature (RT) is relatively well characterized. However, measuring the high temperature mechanical properties of thin films poses several challenges. These include ensuring uniformity in sample temperature and minimizing temporal fluctuations due to ambient heat loss, in addition to difficulties involved in mechanical testing of microscale samples. To address these issues, we designed and analyzed a MEMS-based high temperature tensile testing stage made from single crystal silicon. The freestanding thin film specimens were co-fabricated with the stage to ensure uniaxial loading. Multi-physics simulations of Joule heating, incorporating both radiation and convection heat transfer, were carried out using COMSOL to map the temperature distribution across the stage and the specimen. The simulations were validated using temperature measurements from a thermoreflectance microscope.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Synthesis and charaterization of thin ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes for carbon dioxide separation

Description

High temperature CO2 perm-selective membranes offer potential for uses in various processes for CO2 separation. Recently, efforts are reported on fabrication of dense ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes. The membranes provide selective

High temperature CO2 perm-selective membranes offer potential for uses in various processes for CO2 separation. Recently, efforts are reported on fabrication of dense ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes. The membranes provide selective permeation to CO2 and exhibit high permeation flux at high temperature. Research on transport mechanism demonstrates that gas transport for ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane is rate limited by ion transport in ceramic support. Reducing membrane thickness proves effective to improve permeation flux. This dissertation reports strategy to prepare thin ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes to increase CO2 permeance. The work also presents characteristics and gas permeation properties of the membranes. Thin ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane was constructed with an asymmetric porous support consisting of a thin small-pore ionic conducting ceramic top-layer and a large pore base support. The base support must be carbonate non-wettable to ensure formation of supported dense, thin membrane. Macroporous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer was prepared on large pore Bi1.5Y0.3Sm0.2O3-δ (BYS) base support using suspension coating method. Thin YSZ-carbonate dual-phase membrane (d-YSZ/BYS) was prepared via direct infiltrating Li/Na/K carbonate mixtures into top YSZ layers. The thin membrane of 10 μm thick offered a CO2 flux 5-10 times higher than the thick dual-phase membranes. Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC) exhibited highest CO2 flux and long-term stability and was chosen as ceramic support for membrane performance improvement. Porous SDC layers were co-pressed on base supports using SDC and BYS powder mixtures which provided better sintering comparability and carbonate non-wettability. Thin SDC-carbonate dual-phase membrane (d-SDC/SDC60BYS40) of 150 μm thick was synthesized on SDC60BYS40. CO2 permeation flux for d-SDC/SDC60BYS40 exhibited increasing dependence on temperature and partial pressure gradient. The flux was higher than other SDC-based dual-phase membranes. Reducing membrane thickness proves effective to increase CO2 permeation flux for the dual-phase membrane.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Anomalous Dynamic Behavior of Stable Nanograined Materials

Description

The stability of nanocrystalline microstructural features allows structural materials to be synthesized and tested in ways that have heretofore been pursued only on a limited basis, especially under dynamic loading

The stability of nanocrystalline microstructural features allows structural materials to be synthesized and tested in ways that have heretofore been pursued only on a limited basis, especially under dynamic loading combined with temperature effects. Thus, a recently developed, stable nanocrystalline alloy is analyzed here for quasi-static (<100 s-1) and dynamic loading (103 to 104 s-1) under uniaxial compression and tension at multiple temperatures ranging from 298-1073 K. After mechanical tests, microstructures are analyzed and possible deformation mechanisms are proposed. Following this, strain and strain rate history effects on mechanical behavior are analyzed using a combination of quasi-static and dynamic strain rate Bauschinger testing. The stable nanocrystalline material is found to exhibit limited flow stress increase with increasing strain rate as compared to that of both pure, coarse grained and nanocrystalline Cu. Further, the material microstructural features, which includes Ta nano-dispersions, is seen to pin dislocation at quasi-static strain rates, but the deformation becomes dominated by twin nucleation at high strain rates. These twins are pinned from further growth past nucleation by the Ta nano-dispersions. Testing of thermal and load history effects on the mechanical behavior reveals that when thermal energy is increased beyond 200 °C, an upturn in flow stress is present at strain rates below 104 s-1. However, in this study, this simple assumption, established 50-years ago, is shown to break-down when the average grain size and microstructural length-scale is decreased and stabilized below 100nm. This divergent strain-rate behavior is attributed to a unique microstructure that alters slip-processes and their interactions with phonons; thus enabling materials response with a constant flow-stress even at extreme conditions. Hence, the present study provides a pathway for designing and synthesizing a new-level of tough and high-energy absorbing materials.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017