Matching Items (31)

Building Thermal Performance Varies During Extreme Heat within Cities

Description

This document has been superseded by our peer-reviewed publication:
Building Thermal Performance, Climate Change, and Urban Heat Vulnerability, Matthew Nahlik, Mikhail Chester, Stephanie Pincetl, David Eisenman, Deepak Sivaraman, and Paul

This document has been superseded by our peer-reviewed publication:
Building Thermal Performance, Climate Change, and Urban Heat Vulnerability, Matthew Nahlik, Mikhail Chester, Stephanie Pincetl, David Eisenman, Deepak Sivaraman, and Paul English, 2017, ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 23(3), doi:10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000349

The publication is available here

The leading source of weather-related deaths in the United States is heat, and future projections show that the frequency, duration, and intensity of heat events will increase in the Southwest. Presently, there is a dearth of knowledge about how infrastructure may perform during heat waves or could contribute to social vulnerability. To understand how buildings perform in heat and potentially stress people, indoor air temperature changes when air conditioning is inaccessible are modeled for building archetypes in Los Angeles, California, and Phoenix, Arizona, when air conditioning is inaccessible is estimated.

An energy simulation model is used to estimate how quickly indoor air temperature changes when building archetypes are exposed to extreme heat. Building age and geometry (which together determine the building envelope material composition) are found to be the strongest indicators of thermal envelope performance. Older neighborhoods in Los Angeles and Phoenix (often more centrally located in the metropolitan areas) are found to contain the buildings whose interiors warm the fastest, raising particular concern because these regions are also forecast to experience temperature increases. To combat infrastructure vulnerability and provide heat refuge for residents, incentives should be adopted to strategically retrofit buildings where both socially vulnerable populations reside and increasing temperatures are forecast.

Contributors

Eschbach, Barbara

Description

Barbara Eschbach came to ASU in 1977 and worked four years as the Administrative Assistant for the Dean of the College of Architecture. In 1981, she moved to Computing

Barbara Eschbach came to ASU in 1977 and worked four years as the Administrative Assistant for the Dean of the College of Architecture. In 1981, she moved to Computing Services, eventually becoming Director of IT Facilities and Resources Administration, retiring in 2006. She returned as Program Coordinator for Economic Affairs, again retiring in 2008. As the Facility Manager for IT, she played a key role in the construction of the Computing Commons Building and in the renovation of Old Main to house the campus’ telecommunications hub.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-04-24 to 2012-05-16

Dolbert, Susan Clouse

Description

Susan (Clouse) Dolbert is a former ASU employee who at the time of this interview, was working at Rutgers University. Susan has a long history with ASU starting off as

Susan (Clouse) Dolbert is a former ASU employee who at the time of this interview, was working at Rutgers University. Susan has a long history with ASU starting off as a student for her undergraduate degree in Political Science/Latin American Studies. After graduation she went on to work in different positions within ASU, taking a brief break to work at Emory Riddle in Prescott. She returned to ASU and worked in Engineering before becoming the Director of Undergraduate Admissions. She completed her Masters degree in Communications with an emphasis on Organization Communications. She then went on to complete her PhD in Public Administration with an emphasis in Public Policy and Organizational Development. Her last position at ASU was as President and Director of the Alumni Association.

Susan left ASU to pursue a position as Head of Development at Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale. From there she became Head of Development at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle, WA and then on to lead Rutgers Bio-American Health Sciences. Even though she is no longer physically at ASU, her heart will always beat as a Sun Devil!

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05-29

Lewis, William

Description

Bill Lewis, Vice Provost for Computing, came to ASU in 1966 to join the Industrial Engineering faculty. He retired in 2008. Important interview stories include ones involving: FOUNDING PROGRAMS

Bill Lewis, Vice Provost for Computing, came to ASU in 1966 to join the Industrial Engineering faculty. He retired in 2008. Important interview stories include ones involving: FOUNDING PROGRAMS (computer science); COMPUTERS (student information system, computing support); TEMPE CAMPUS (1966, changes); DEPARTMENTS (Industrial Engineering); PEOPLE (Lee P Thompson, Milt Glick); and BUILDINGS (Computer Commons).

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2010-01-22

Borovansky, Vladimir

Description

Vladimir Borovansky, ASU Noble Library Research librarian, joined ASU in May 1968. Interesting stories include:
1) the development of the NOBLE LIBRARY,
2) GOING DIGITAL - progression in the use

Vladimir Borovansky, ASU Noble Library Research librarian, joined ASU in May 1968. Interesting stories include:
1) the development of the NOBLE LIBRARY,
2) GOING DIGITAL - progression in the use of digital searching from offline searches to ARPANET to Google,
3), the creation of a Patent Depository Library and
4) an important trait of being a research librarian, i.e., know your audience

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-02-19

154129-Thumbnail Image.png

Pavement surfaces impact on local temperature and building cooling energy consumption

Description

Pavement surface temperature is calculated using a fundamental energy balance model developed previously. It can be studied using a one-dimensional mathematical model. The input to the model is changed, to

Pavement surface temperature is calculated using a fundamental energy balance model developed previously. It can be studied using a one-dimensional mathematical model. The input to the model is changed, to study the effect of different properties of pavement on its diurnal surface temperatures. It is observed that the pavement surface temperature has a microclimatic effect on the air temperature above it. A major increase in local air temperature is caused by heating of solid surfaces in that locality. A case study was done and correlations have been established to calculate the air temperature above a paved surface. Validation with in-situ pavement surface and air temperatures were made. Experimental measurement for the city of Phoenix shows the difference between the ambient air temperature of the city and the microclimatic air temperature above the pavement is approximately 10 degrees Fahrenheit. One mitigation strategy that has been explored is increasing the albedo of the paved surface. Although it will reduce the pavement surface temperature, leading to a reduction in air temperature close to the surface, the increased pavement albedo will also result in greater reflected solar radiation directed towards the building, thus increasing the building solar load. The first effect will imply a reduction in the building energy consumption, while the second effect will imply an increase in the building energy consumption. Simulation is done using the EnergyPlus tool, to find the microclimatic effect of pavement on the building energy performance. The results indicate the cooling energy savings of an office building for different types of pavements can be variable as much as 30%.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

154084-Thumbnail Image.png

Self-configuring and self-adaptive environment control systems for buildings

Description

Lighting systems and air-conditioning systems are two of the largest energy consuming end-uses in buildings. Lighting control in smart buildings and homes can be automated by having computer controlled lights

Lighting systems and air-conditioning systems are two of the largest energy consuming end-uses in buildings. Lighting control in smart buildings and homes can be automated by having computer controlled lights and window blinds along with illumination sensors that are distributed in the building, while temperature control can be automated by having computer controlled air-conditioning systems. However, programming actuators in a large-scale environment for buildings and homes can be time consuming and expensive. This dissertation presents an approach that algorithmically sets up the control system that can automate any building without requiring custom programming. This is achieved by imbibing the system self calibrating and self learning abilities.

For lighting control, the dissertation describes how the problem is non-deterministic polynomial-time hard(NP-Hard) but can be resolved by heuristics. The resulting system controls blinds to ensure uniform lighting and also adds artificial illumination to ensure light coverage remains adequate at all times of the day, while adjusting for weather and seasons. In the absence of daylight, the system resorts to artificial lighting.

For temperature control, the dissertation describes how the temperature control problem is modeled using convex quadratic programming. The impact of every air conditioner on each sensor at a particular time is learnt using a linear regression model. The resulting system controls air-conditioning equipments to ensure the maintenance of user comfort and low cost of energy consumptions. The system can be deployed in large scale environments. It can accept multiple target setpoints at a time, which improves the flexibility and efficiency of cooling systems requiring temperature control.

The methods proposed work as generic control algorithms and are not preprogrammed for a particular place or building. The feasibility, adaptivity and scalability features of the system have been validated through various actual and simulated experiments.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

154775-Thumbnail Image.png

Sustainability assessment framework for infrastructure: application to buildings / by Jonghoon Kim

Description

In the United States, buildings account for 20–40% of the total energy consumption based on their operation and maintenance, which consume nearly 80% of their energy during their lifecycle. In

In the United States, buildings account for 20–40% of the total energy consumption based on their operation and maintenance, which consume nearly 80% of their energy during their lifecycle. In order to reduce building energy consumption and related problems (i.e. global warming, air pollution, and energy shortages), numerous building technology programs, codes, and standards have been developed such as net-zero energy buildings, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), and the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers 90.1. However, these programs, codes, and standards are typically utilized before or during the design and construction phases. Subsequently, it is difficult to track whether buildings could still reduce energy consumption post construction. This dissertation fills the gap in knowledge of analytical methods for building energy analysis studies for LEED buildings. It also focuses on the use of green space for reducing atmospheric temperature, which contributes the most to building energy consumption. The three primary objectives of this research are to: 1) find the relationship between building energy consumption, outside atmospheric temperature, and LEED Energy and Atmosphere credits (OEP); 2) examine the use of different green space layouts for reducing the atmospheric temperature of high-rise buildings; and 3) use data mining techniques (i.e. clustering, isolation, and anomaly detection) to identify data anomalies in the energy data set and evaluate LEED Energy and Atmosphere credits based on building energy patterns. The results found that buildings with lower OEP used the highest amount of energy. LEED OEP scores tended to increase the energy saving potential of buildings, thereby reducing the need for renovation and maintenance. The results also revealed that the shade and evaporation effects of green spaces around buildings were more effective for lowering the daytime atmospheric temperature in the range of 2°C to 6.5°C. Additionally, abnormal energy consumption patterns were found in LEED buildings that used anomaly detection methodology analysis. Overall, LEED systems should be evaluated for energy performance to ensure that buildings continue to save energy after construction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

156208-Thumbnail Image.png

The optimized use of phase change materials in buildings

Description

In recent years, 40% of the total world energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is because of buildings. Out of that 60% of building energy consumption is due to HVAC

In recent years, 40% of the total world energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is because of buildings. Out of that 60% of building energy consumption is due to HVAC systems. Under current trends these values will increase in coming years. So, it is important to identify passive cooling or heating technologies to meet this need. The concept of thermal energy storage (TES), as noted by many authors, is a promising way to rectify indoor temperature fluctuations. Due to its high energy density and the use of latent energy, Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are an efficient choice to use as TES. A question that has not satisfactorily been addressed, however, is the optimum location of PCM. In other words, given a constant PCM mass, where is the best location for it in a building? This thesis addresses this question by positioning PCM to obtain maximum energy savings and peak time delay. This study is divided into three parts. The first part is to understand the thermal behavior of building surfaces, using EnergyPlus software. For analysis, a commercial prototype building model for a small office in Phoenix, provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, is applied and the weather location file for Phoenix, Arizona is also used. The second part is to justify the best location, which is obtained from EnergyPlus, using a transient grey box building model. For that we have developed a Resistance-Capacitance (RC) thermal network and studied the thermal profile of a building in Phoenix. The final part is to find the best location for PCMs in buildings using EnergyPlus software. In this part, the mass of PCM used in each location remains unchanged. This part also includes the impact of the PCM mass on the optimized location and how the peak shift varies. From the analysis, it is observed that the ceiling is the best location to install PCM for yielding the maximum reduction in HVAC energy consumption for a hot, arid climate like Phoenix.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

155081-Thumbnail Image.png

Assessment of pattern of energy consumption with varying building parameters

Description

ABSTRACT

A large fraction of the total energy consumption in the world comes from heating and cooling of buildings. Improving the energy efficiency of buildings to reduce the needs of

ABSTRACT

A large fraction of the total energy consumption in the world comes from heating and cooling of buildings. Improving the energy efficiency of buildings to reduce the needs of seasonal heating and cooling is one of the major challenges in sustainable development. In general, the energy efficiency depends on the geometry and material of the buildings. To explore a framework for accurately assessing this dependence, detailed 3-D thermofluid simulations are performed by systematically sweeping the parameter space spanned by four parameters: the size of building, thickness and material of wall, and fractional size of window. The simulations incorporate realistic boundary conditions of diurnally-varying temperatures from observation, and the effect of fluid flow with explicit thermal convection inside the building. The outcome of the numerical simulations is synthesized into a simple map of an index of energy efficiency in the parameter space which can be used by stakeholders to quick look-up the energy efficiency of a proposed design of a building before its construction. Although this study only considers a special prototype of buildings, the framework developed in this work can potentially be used for a wide range of buildings and applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016