Dimensionality reduction methods are examined for large-scale discrete problems, specifically for the solution of three-dimensional geophysics problems: the inversion of gravity and magnetic data. The matrices for the associated forward problems have beneficial structure for each depth layer of the volume domain, under mild assumptions, which facilitates the use of the two dimensional fast Fourier transform for evaluating forward and transpose matrix operations, providing considerable savings in both computational costs and storage requirements. Application of this approach for the magnetic problem is new in the geophysics literature. Further, the approach is extended for padded volume domains.
Stabilized inversion is obtained efficiently by applying novel randomization techniques within each update of the iteratively reweighted scheme. For a general rectangular linear system, a randomization technique combined with preconditioning is introduced and investigated. This is shown to provide well-conditioned inversion, stabilized through truncation. Applying this approach, while implementing matrix operations using the two dimensional fast Fourier transform, yields computationally effective inversion, in memory and cost. Validation is provided via synthetic data sets, and the approach is contrasted with the well-known LSRN algorithm when applied to these data sets. The results demonstrate a significant reduction in computational cost with the new algorithm. Further, this new algorithm produces results for inversion of real magnetic data consistent with those provided in literature.
Typically, the iteratively reweighted least squares algorithm depends on a standard Tikhonov formulation. Here, this is solved using both a randomized singular value de- composition and the iterative LSQR Krylov algorithm. The results demonstrate that the new algorithm is competitive with these approaches and offers the advantage that no regularization parameter needs to be found at each outer iteration.
Given its efficiency, investigating the new algorithm for the joint inversion of these data sets may be fruitful. Initial research on joint inversion using the two dimensional fast Fourier transform has recently been submitted and provides the basis for future work. Several alternative directions for dimensionality reduction are also discussed, including iteratively applying an approximate pseudo-inverse and obtaining an approximate Kronecker product decomposition via randomization for a general matrix. These are also topics for future consideration.