Matching Items (5)

Personal Productivity: The Eternal Quest

Description

As libraries are increasingly asked to do more with less, we all have more things to do and less time to do them. Sometimes, the tools we have to hel

As libraries are increasingly asked to do more with less, we all have more things to do and less time to do them. Sometimes, the tools we have to help - like email and smartphones - actually make things worse! The trick is connecting technology and techniques that can best help us to manage our time and productivity effectively.

In this presentation, Anali will lead an intrepid party on the eternal quest of improving personal productivity. Together, we’ll fight the email dragon, vanquish the time stealing goblins, and explore an arsenal of tools that help us get things done. By sharing ideas and best practices, we can each make connections to the techniques and tools will help us succeed on our quest!

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Date Created
  • 2015-11-19

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Essays in growth and development

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The dissertation consists of three essays that deal with variations in economic growth and development across space and time. The essays in particular explore the importance of differences in occupational

The dissertation consists of three essays that deal with variations in economic growth and development across space and time. The essays in particular explore the importance of differences in occupational structures in various settings.

The first chapter documents that intergenerational occupational persistence is significantly higher in poor countries even after controlling for cross-country differences in occupational structures. Based on this empirical fact, I posit that high occupational persistence in poor countries is symptomatic of underlying talent misallocation. Constraints on education financing force sons to choose fathers' occupations over the occupations of their comparative advantage. A version of Roy (1951) model of occupational choice is developed to quantify the impact of occupational misallocation on aggregate productivity. I find that output per worker reduces to a third of the benchmark US economy for the country with the highest level of occupational persistence.

In the second chapter, I use occupational prestige as a proxy of social status to estimate intergenerational occupational mobility for 50 countries spanning the breadth of world's income distribution for both sons and daughters. I find that although relative mobility varies significantly across countries, the correlation between relative mobility and GDP per capita is only mildly positive for sons and is close to zero for daughters. I also consider two measures of absolute mobility: the propensity to move across quartiles and the propensity to move relative to father's occupational prestige. Similar to relative mobility, the first measure of absolute mobility is uncorrelated with GDP per capita. The second measure, however, is positively correlated with GDP per capita with correlations being significantly higher for sons compared to daughters.

The third chapter analyses to what extent the growth in productivity witnessed by India during 1983--2004 can be explained by a better allocation of workers across occupations. I first document that the propensity to work in high-skilled occupations relative to high-caste men increased manifold for high-caste women, low-caste men and low-caste women during this period. Given that innate talent in these occupations is likely to be independent across groups, the chapter argues that the occupational distribution in the 1980s represented talent misallocation in which workers from many groups faced significant barriers to practice an occupation of their comparative advantage. I find that these barriers can explain 15--21\% of the observed growth in output per worker during the period from 1983--2004.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The impact of a workplace environmental change on work-related outcomes: productivity, presenteeism and cognition

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The purpose of this study was to examine whether a workplace environmental intervention would improve work-related outcomes including productivity, presenteeism and cognition. The secondary aim was to investigate whether work-related

The purpose of this study was to examine whether a workplace environmental intervention would improve work-related outcomes including productivity, presenteeism and cognition. The secondary aim was to investigate whether work-related outcomes are correlated to observed changes in sitting time, physical activity, and sleep. The study was introduced as part of a naturalistic environmental change in which university staff and faculty were relocated into a new building (n=23). The comparison group consisted of university staff within the same college with no imminent plans to re-locate during the intervention period; there were no environmental changes to this workplace (n =10). Participants wore two behavioral monitoring devices, activPAL and GeneActiv, for 7 consecutive days at two time points (immediately prior and 16 weeks following the office relocation). Measures of productivity and presenteeism were obtained via four validated questionnaires and participants underwent cognitive performance testing. Baseline adjusted analysis of covariance statistical analyses were used to examine differences between groups in work-related outcomes. A residual analysis in regression was conducted to determine the differences between observed changes in sitting time, physical activity and sleep, and work-related outcomes. The results showed that a reduction in work hour sitting time was not detrimental to work related outcomes. Decreased sitting was observed to potentially improve presenteeism and absenteeism. Additionally, physical activity was shown to modestly improve productivity, presenteeism and absenteeism. Poor sleep patterns were associated with work impairment and increased absenteeism.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Analyzing the impact of building information modeling (BIM) on labor productivity in retrofit construction: case study at a semiconductor manufacturing facility

Description

Economic and environmental concerns necessitate the preference for retrofits over new construction in manufacturing facilities for incorporating modern technology, expanding production, becoming more energy-efficient and improving operational efficiency. Despite the

Economic and environmental concerns necessitate the preference for retrofits over new construction in manufacturing facilities for incorporating modern technology, expanding production, becoming more energy-efficient and improving operational efficiency. Despite the technical and functional challenges in retrofits, the expectation from the project team is to; reduce costs, ensure the time to market and maintain a high standard for quality and safety. Thus, the construction supply chain faces increasing pressure to improve performance by ensuring better labor productivity, among other factors, for efficiency gain. Building Information Modeling (BIM) & off-site prefabrication are determined as effective management & production methods to meet these goals. However, there are limited studies assessing their impact on labor productivity within the constraints of a retrofit environment. This study fills the gap by exploring the impact of BIM on labor productivity (metric) in retrofits (context).

BIM use for process tool installation at a semiconductor manufacturing facility serves as an ideal environment for practical observations. Direct site observations indicate a positive correlation between disruptions in the workflow attributed to an immature use of BIM, waste due to rework and high non-value added time at the labor work face. Root-cause analysis traces the origins of the said disruptions to decision-factors that are critical for the planning, management and implementation of BIM. Analysis shows that stakeholders involved in decision-making during BIM planning, management and implementation identify BIM-value based on their immediate utility for BIM-use instead of the utility for the customers of the process. This differing value-system manifests in the form of unreliable and inaccurate information at the labor work face.

Grounding the analysis in theory and observations, the author hypothesizes that stakeholders of a construction project value BIM and BIM-aspects (i.e. geometrical information, descriptive information and workflows) differently and the accuracy of geometrical information is critical for improving labor productivity when using prefabrication in retrofit construction. In conclusion, this research presents a BIM-value framework, associating stakeholders with their relative value for BIM, the decision-factors for the planning, management and implementation of BIM and the potential impact of those decisions on labor productivity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Schooling choice during structural transformation

Description

This dissertation consists of two essays. The first measures the degree to which schooling accounts for differences in industry value added per worker. Using a sample of 107 economies and

This dissertation consists of two essays. The first measures the degree to which schooling accounts for differences in industry value added per worker. Using a sample of 107 economies and seven industries, the paper considers the patterns in the education levels of various industries and their relative value added per worker. Agriculture has notably less schooling and is less productive than other sectors, while a group of services including financial services, education and health care has higher rates of schooling and higher value added per worker. The essay finds that in the case of these specific industries education is important in explaining sector differences, and the role of education all other industries are less defined. The second essay provides theory to investigate the relationship between agriculture and schooling. During structural transformation, workers shift from the agriculture sector with relatively low schooling to other sectors which have more schooling. This essay explores to what extent changes in the costs of acquiring schooling drive structural transformation using a multi-sector growth model which includes a schooling choice. The model is disciplined using cross country data on sector of employment and schooling constructed from the IPUM International census collection. Counterfactual exercises are used to determine how much structural transformation is accounted for by changes in the cost of acquiring schooling. These changes account for small shares of structural transformation in all economies with a median near zero.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011