Vaclav Nelhybel (1919-1996) composed over 600 works, a significant number of which were never published. The trombone is included in more than 200 of Nelhybel’s compositions, some featuring the instrument in a solo role and also as a key contributor in many of his chamber and large ensemble works. The goal of this project is to bring this significant body of trombone literature into the light by examining his seventeen compositions that feature the trombone in solos and trombone ensembles; this paper also includes a select listing of other works by Nelhybel that include the trombone. The seventeen highlighted pieces include nine works for solo trombone and eight for trombone ensemble. This paper also contains background information on the composer and a brief discussion of his overall compositional history, focusing on the last thirty years of his life when he was most active as a composer and became one of the most prominent figures in the wind band movement in the United States. The central portion of the paper describes each of Nelhybel’s compositions that feature the trombone and is divided into three sections: the trombone as solo instrument in published works, an unpublished Concerto for bass trombone, and chamber works for two or more trombones alone. Discussions of key pedagogical aspects, recurring features and techniques, each piece’s difficulty level, and suggestions for performance are included for added depth.