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Bowties, barcodes, and DNA origami: a novel approach for paired-chain immune receptor repertoire analysis

Description

There are many biological questions that require single-cell analysis of gene sequences, including analysis of clonally distributed dimeric immunoreceptors on lymphocytes (T cells and B cells) and/or the accumulation of driver/accessory mutations in polyclonal tumors. Lysis of bulk cell populations

There are many biological questions that require single-cell analysis of gene sequences, including analysis of clonally distributed dimeric immunoreceptors on lymphocytes (T cells and B cells) and/or the accumulation of driver/accessory mutations in polyclonal tumors. Lysis of bulk cell populations results in mixing of gene sequences, making it impossible to know which pairs of gene sequences originated from any particular cell and obfuscating analysis of rare sequences within large populations. Although current single-cell sorting technologies can be used to address some of these questions, such approaches are expensive, require specialized equipment, and lack the necessary high-throughput capacity for comprehensive analysis. Water-in-oil emulsion approaches for single cell sorting have been developed but droplet-based single-cell lysis and analysis have proven inefficient and yield high rates of false pairings. Ideally, molecular approaches for linking gene sequences from individual cells could be coupled with next-generation high-throughput sequencing to overcome these obstacles, but conventional approaches for linking gene sequences, such as by transfection with bridging oligonucleotides, result in activation of cellular nucleases that destroy the template, precluding this strategy. Recent advances in the synthesis and fabrication of modular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) origami nanostructures have resulted in new possibilities for addressing many current and long-standing scientific and technical challenges in biology and medicine. One exciting application of DNA nanotechnology is the intracellular capture, barcode linkage, and subsequent sequence analysis of multiple messenger RNA (mRNA) targets from individual cells within heterogeneous cell populations. DNA nanostructures can be transfected into individual cells to capture and protect mRNA for specific expressed genes, and incorporation of origami-specific bowtie-barcodes into the origami nanostructure facilitates pairing and analysis of mRNA from individual cells by high-throughput next-generation sequencing. This approach is highly modular and can be adapted to virtually any two (and possibly more) gene target sequences, and therefore has a wide range of potential applications for analysis of diverse cell populations such as understanding the relationship between different immune cell populations, development of novel immunotherapeutic antibodies, or improving the diagnosis or treatment for a wide variety of cancers.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
2017

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Developing a CRISPR-Mediated Knockout TCR Human T Cell Line for Use in Cloning Antigen-Specific T Cell Receptors

Description

Adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express synthetic antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) has provocative therapeutic applications for treating cancer. However, expressing these synthetic TCRs in a CD4+ T cell line is a challenge. The CD4+ Jurkat T cell

Adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express synthetic antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) has provocative therapeutic applications for treating cancer. However, expressing these synthetic TCRs in a CD4+ T cell line is a challenge. The CD4+ Jurkat T cell line expresses endogenous TCRs that compete for space, accessory proteins, and proliferative signaling, and there is the potential for mixed dimer formation between the α and β chains of the endogenous receptor and that of the synthetic cancer-specific TCRs. To prevent hybridization between the receptors and to ensure the binding affinity measured with flow cytometry analysis is between the tetramer and the TCR construct, a CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing pipeline was developed. The guide RNAs (gRNAs) within the complex were designed to target the constant region of the α and β chains, as they are conserved between TCR clonotypes. To minimize further interference and confer cytotoxic capabilities, gRNAs were designed to target the CD4 coreceptor, and the CD8 coreceptor was delivered in a mammalian expression vector. Further, Golden Gate cloning methods were validated in integrating the gRNAs into a CRISPR-compatible mammalian expression vector. These constructs were transfected via electroporation into CD4+ Jurkat T cells to create a CD8+ knockout TCR Jurkat cell line for broadly applicable uses in T cell immunotherapies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020