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Relation between family strain and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults: the moderating effect of self-compassion

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Interpersonal strain is linked with depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Self-compassion is an emerging resilience construct that may be advantageous in navigating relationship strain by helping individuals respond to emotions in a kind and nonjudgmental way. Although theory and empirical

Interpersonal strain is linked with depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Self-compassion is an emerging resilience construct that may be advantageous in navigating relationship strain by helping individuals respond to emotions in a kind and nonjudgmental way. Although theory and empirical evidence suggests that self-compassion is protective against the impact of stress on mental health outcomes, many studies have not investigated how self-compassion operates in the context of relationship strain. In addition, few studies have examined psychological or physiological mechanisms by which self-compassion protects against mental health outcomes, depression in particular. Thus, this study examined 1) the extent to which trait self-compassion buffers the relation between family strain and depressive symptoms, and 2) whether these buffering effects are mediated by hope and inflammatory processes (IL-6) in a sample of 762 middle-aged, community-dwelling adults. Results from structural equation models indicated that family strain was unrelated to depressive symptoms and the relation was not moderated by self-compassion. Hope, but not IL-6, mediated the relation between family strain and depressive symptoms and the indirect effect was not conditional on levels of self-compassion. Taken together, the findings suggest that family strain may lead individuals to experience less hope and subsequent increases in depressive symptoms, and further, that a self-compassionate attitude does not affect this relation. Implications for future self-compassion interventions are discussed.

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2019

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Longitudinal associations between felt pressure from family and peers and self-esteem among African American and Latino/a Youth

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The present study explored longitudinal associations between self-esteem and a specific dimension of gender identity (GI) and ethnic-racial identity (ERI), namely felt pressure from family and peers to act or behave in either gender or race/ethnic-accordant ways, among a sample

The present study explored longitudinal associations between self-esteem and a specific dimension of gender identity (GI) and ethnic-racial identity (ERI), namely felt pressure from family and peers to act or behave in either gender or race/ethnic-accordant ways, among a sample of 750 African American and Latino/a middle school students (M = 12.10 years, SD = .97 years) in a southwestern U.S. city. Participants completed measures of self-esteem and GI and ERI felt pressure from family and from peers at two time points. Data were analyzed through bivariate correlation and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. Hierarchical multiple linear regression results revealed that among African American students, there was a significant negative longitudinal association between ERI felt pressure from family at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2 after controlling for self-esteem at Time 1. There was also a significant negative longitudinal association between ERI felt pressure from peers at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2 among African American participants. However, these associations were not found among Latino/a participants. Implications of findings with regards to GI and ERI development during early adolescence, socialization, and school context are discussed.

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2017