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A study of heating and degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/polycarbonate polymer due to ultraviolet lasers illumination during localized pre-deposition heating for fused filament fabrication 3D printing

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With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured

With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured in this method. The goal is to produce parts that mimic the strength characteristics of a comparable part of the same design and materials created using injection molding. In achieving this goal the production cost can be reduced by eliminating the initial investment needed for the creation of expensive tooling. This initial investment reduction will allow for a wider variant of products in smaller batch runs to be made available. This thesis implements the use of ultraviolet (UV) illumination for an in-process laser local pre-deposition heating (LLPH). By comparing samples with and without the LLPH process it is determined that applied energy that is absorbed by the polymer is converted to an increase in the interlayer temperature, and resulting in an observed increase in tensile strength over the baseline test samples. The increase in interlayer bonding thus can be considered the dominating factor over polymer degradation.

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2017

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Inactivation of bacteria and viruses in water using ultraviolet light and advanced oxidation processes in a bench-scale and two pilot-scale systems

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Adenoviruses cause gastrointestinal illnesses and have been listed on the U.S. EPA’s Contaminant Candidate Lists (CCL). They are highly resistant to ultraviolet (UV) inactivation. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are known to improve inactivation of microorganisms and simultaneously oxidize organics. The

Adenoviruses cause gastrointestinal illnesses and have been listed on the U.S. EPA’s Contaminant Candidate Lists (CCL). They are highly resistant to ultraviolet (UV) inactivation. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are known to improve inactivation of microorganisms and simultaneously oxidize organics. The bacteriophage P22 was selected as a surrogate for adenoviruses due to their physical and genetic similarities.

The main objective of this study was to compare the synergic disinfection potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2) or peracetic acid (PAA) with UV for viruses and bacteria in water.

Both bench-scale and pilot-scale evaluation was done. A bench-scale collimated beam was included to evaluate the inactivation of P22 and E. coli by UV with and without TiO2 or PAA. A Purifics Photo-Cat system which is an integrated UV/ceramic membrane reactor was used for the pilot-scale TiO2-UV AOP experiments. For pilot-scale PAA-UV AOP experiments, an in-line D222 UV reactor unit provided by NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc. was used.

TiO2 doses of 1, 10, and 40 mg/L were applied in the collimated beam and the Photo-Cat system. Higher TiO2 doses resulted in a higher inactivation in the Photo-Cat and lower inactivation in the collimated beam apparatus. Adding 40 mg/L of TiO2 in the photo-Cat system improved P22 inactivation by 25% while it slightly decreased P22 inactivation in collimated beam apparatus.

PAA doses of 0.25 or 0.5 ppm were continuously injected upstream of the UV light and a 53% or 90% increase in inactivation was observed for E. coli, respectively, as compared to UV alone. However, P22 required higher dose with PAA-UV AOP and PAA concentrations of 1 or 10 ppm resulted in an 18% and 70% increase in the inactivation respectively, as compared to UV alone. Interestingly, when the same condition was applied to water with more organics (UVT 79%), E. coli exhibited the same level of susceptibility to PAA-UV AOP while P22 inactivation decreased.

The results provide new insight on the effectiveness and applicability of adding AOP to UV for microbial inactivation in water. PAA-UV AOP can potentially enhance existing UV disinfection systems with minimal chemical addition, and a simple retrofit to existing UV units.

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2017