- Genre: Academic theses
- Genre: Masters Thesis
- Creators: Arizona State University
- Creators: Kusel, Scott Daniel
- Member of: Theses and Dissertations
The main objective of this study was to compare the synergic disinfection potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2) or peracetic acid (PAA) with UV for viruses and bacteria in water.
Both bench-scale and pilot-scale evaluation was done. A bench-scale collimated beam was included to evaluate the inactivation of P22 and E. coli by UV with and without TiO2 or PAA. A Purifics Photo-Cat system which is an integrated UV/ceramic membrane reactor was used for the pilot-scale TiO2-UV AOP experiments. For pilot-scale PAA-UV AOP experiments, an in-line D222 UV reactor unit provided by NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc. was used.
TiO2 doses of 1, 10, and 40 mg/L were applied in the collimated beam and the Photo-Cat system. Higher TiO2 doses resulted in a higher inactivation in the Photo-Cat and lower inactivation in the collimated beam apparatus. Adding 40 mg/L of TiO2 in the photo-Cat system improved P22 inactivation by 25% while it slightly decreased P22 inactivation in collimated beam apparatus.
PAA doses of 0.25 or 0.5 ppm were continuously injected upstream of the UV light and a 53% or 90% increase in inactivation was observed for E. coli, respectively, as compared to UV alone. However, P22 required higher dose with PAA-UV AOP and PAA concentrations of 1 or 10 ppm resulted in an 18% and 70% increase in the inactivation respectively, as compared to UV alone. Interestingly, when the same condition was applied to water with more organics (UVT 79%), E. coli exhibited the same level of susceptibility to PAA-UV AOP while P22 inactivation decreased.
The results provide new insight on the effectiveness and applicability of adding AOP to UV for microbial inactivation in water. PAA-UV AOP can potentially enhance existing UV disinfection systems with minimal chemical addition, and a simple retrofit to existing UV units.
The objective of the research is to test the use of 3D printed thermoplastic to produce fixtures which affix instrumentation to asphalt concrete samples used for Simple Performance Testing (SPT). The testing is done as part of materials characterization to obtain properties that will help in future pavement designs. Currently, these fixtures (mounting studs) are made of expensive brass and cumbersome to clean with or without chemicals.
Three types of thermoplastics were utilized to assess the effect of temperature and applied stress on the performance of the 3D printed studs. Asphalt concrete samples fitted with thermoplastic studs were tested according to AASHTO & ASTM standards. The thermoplastics tested are: Polylactic acid (PLA), the most common 3D printing material; Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), a typical 3D printing material which is less rigid than PLA and has a higher melting temperature; Polycarbonate (PC), a strong, high temperature 3D printing material.
A high traffic volume Marshal mix design from the City of Phoenix was obtained and adapted to a Superpave mix design methodology. The mix design is dense-graded with nominal maximum aggregate size of ¾” inch and a PG 70-10 binder. Samples were fabricated and the following tests were performed: Dynamic Modulus |E*| conducted at five temperatures and six frequencies; Flow Number conducted at a high temperature of 50°C, and axial cyclic fatigue test at a moderate temperature of 18°C.
The results from SPT for each 3D printed material were compared to results using brass mounting studs. Validation or rejection of the concept was determined from statistical analysis on the mean and variance of collected SPT test data.
The concept of using 3D printed thermoplastic for mounting stud fabrication is a promising option; however, the concept should be verified with more extensive research using a variety of asphalt mixes and operators to ensure no bias in the repeatability and reproducibility of test results. The Polycarbonate (PC) had a stronger layer bonding than ABS and PLA while printing. It was recommended for follow up studies.