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Multicultural music therapy: developing cultural competency for students and young professionals

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The concept of multiculturalism in music therapy is becoming increasingly relevant in the United States. The purpose of this thesis was to analyze multicultural content in undergraduate programs approved by

The concept of multiculturalism in music therapy is becoming increasingly relevant in the United States. The purpose of this thesis was to analyze multicultural content in undergraduate programs approved by the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA), and evaluate the Multicultural Counseling Competencies, in order to develop an educational tool to foster multicultural competency in undergraduate music therapy students. The research questions addressed in this analysis were: (a) what are the current multicultural education practices for undergraduate music therapy students in the United States, and (b) what aspects of multicultural counseling education can provide a framework for multicultural education in music therapy? Within music therapy education, there seems to be no standardized method of delivering multicultural content. Based on the findings of this content analysis, the author combined content from current multicultural music therapy and multicultural counseling education to develop a lecture series for undergraduate music therapy students. Results included the curricula of 68 AMTA-Approved undergraduate music therapy programs. 327 multiculturally related courses were identified. Coded course categories in order of frequency were ability, age, language, Non-Western music, ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, gender, spirituality, sexual orientation, religion, and general

culture. These results are consistent with existing publications remarking on the state of multicultural education in music therapy.

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  • 2017

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The relationship between clinical experience, emotional intelligence and counselor self-efficacy with resilience as a moderator

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Emotions are essential ingredients to the human experience. How one feels influences how one thinks and behaves. The processing capacity for emotion-related information can be thought of as emotional

Emotions are essential ingredients to the human experience. How one feels influences how one thinks and behaves. The processing capacity for emotion-related information can be thought of as emotional intelligence (Salovey & Mayer, 1997). Regulating emotions and coping with emotional experiences are among the most common reasons individuals seek counseling. Counselors must be uniquely equipped in processing and managing emotional content. Counselor’s skills and abilities related to emotional intelligence are vital to effective counseling. There is indication that confidence in one’s counseling skills may be equally as important as competence in these skills. Counselor self-efficacy, one’s belief in one’s ability to perform counseling activities, has been shown to relate to counselor performance and ability and increased clinical experience has been associated with higher levels of counselor self-efficacy (Larson & Daniels, 1998). One’s emotion-related information processing abilities and one’s clinical experiences may contribute to one’s perception of one’s competencies and abilities as a counselor.

However, this relationship may not be a simple cause-and-effect association. Individuals may possess a certain aptitude (emotional intelligence) and not perceive themselves as competent as counselors. Resilience, one’s ability to “bounce-back” and persevere through adversity may moderate the relation between emotional intelligence and counselor self-efficacy (Wagnild, 1990).

The current study explored the relations among clinical experience, emotional intelligence and resilience in predicting self-efficacy. In addition, whether resilience would moderate the relationship between emotional intelligence and counselor self-efficacy was examined. Eighty counselor trainees enrolled in CACREP-accredited master’s programs participated in this study online. They completed a demographics form, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, et al., 2002), the Counselor Activities Self-Efficacy Scales (CASES; Lent et al., 2003), and The Resilience Scale (RS; Wagnild & Young, 1993). Multiple hierarchical regressions revealed clinical experience (specifically a completed practicum), emotional intelligence, and resilience predicted counselor self-efficacy. The moderation was not significant. These findings support the value of the exploration of clinical experience, emotional intelligence and resilience in developing counselor self-efficacy. A more comprehensive discussion of the findings, limitations, and implications of the current study as well as suggested direction for future research are discussed herein.

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  • 2017