Matching Items (5)

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Metasurface-Based Techniques for Broadband Radar Cross-Section Reduction of Complex Structures

Description

Within the past two decades, metasurfaces, with their unique ability to tailor the wavefront, have attracted scientific attention. Along with many other research areas, RADAR cross-section (RCS)-reduction techniques have also

Within the past two decades, metasurfaces, with their unique ability to tailor the wavefront, have attracted scientific attention. Along with many other research areas, RADAR cross-section (RCS)-reduction techniques have also benefited from metasurface technology.

In this dissertation, a novel technique to synthesize the RCS-reduction metasurfaces is presented. This technique unifies the two most widely studied and two well-established modern RCS-reduction methods: checkerboard RCS-reduction andgradient-index RCS-reduction. It also overcomes the limitations associated with these RCS-reduction methods. It synthesizes the RCS-reduction metasurfaces, which can be juxtaposed with almost any existing metasurface, to reduce its RCS. The proposed technique is fundamentally based on scattering cancellation. Finally, an example of the RCS-reduction metasurface has been synthesized and introduced to reduce the RCS of an existing high-gain metasurface ground plane.

After that, various ways of obtaining ultrabroadband RCS-reduction using the same technique are proposed, which overcome the fundamental limitation of the conventional checkerboard metasurfaces, where the reflection phase difference of (180+-37) degrees is required to achieve 10-dB RCS reduction. First, the guideline on how to select Artificial Magnetic Conductors (AMCs) is explained with an example of a blended checkerboard architecture where a 10-dB RCS reduction is observed over 83% of the bandwidth. Further, by modifying the architecture of the blended checkerboard metasurface, the 10-dB RCS reduction bandwidth increased to 91% fractional bandwidth. All the proposed architectures are validated using measured data for fabricated prototypes. Critical steps for designing the ultrabroadband RCS reduction checkerboard surface are summarized.

Finally, a broadband technique to reduce the RCS of complex targets is presented. By using the proposed technique, the problem of reducing the RCS contribution from such multiple-bounces simplifies to identifying and implementing a set of orthogonal functions. Robust guidelines for avoiding grating lobes are provided using array theory. The 90 degree dihedral corner is used to verify the proposed technique. Measurements are reported for a fabricated prototype, where a 70% RCS-reduction bandwidth is observed. To generalize the method, a 45 degree dihedral corner, with a quadruple-bounce mechanism, is considered. Generalized guidelines are summarized and applied to reduce the RCS of complex targets using the proposed method.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Impedance Modulated Metasurface Antennas

Description

Impedance-modulated metasurfaces are compact artificially-engineered surfaces whose surface-impedance profile is modulated with a periodic function. These metasurfaces function as leaky-wave antennas (LWAs) that are capable of achieving high gains and

Impedance-modulated metasurfaces are compact artificially-engineered surfaces whose surface-impedance profile is modulated with a periodic function. These metasurfaces function as leaky-wave antennas (LWAs) that are capable of achieving high gains and narrow beamwidths with thin and light-weight structures. The surface-impedance modulation function for the desired radiation characteristics can be obtained using the holographic principle, whose application in antennas has been investigated extensively.

On account of their radiation and physical characteristics, modulated metasurfaces can be employed in automotive radar, 5G, and imaging applications. Automotive radar applications might require the antennas to be flush-mounted on the vehicular bodies that can be curved. Hence, it is necessary to analyze and design conformal metasurface antennas. The surface-impedance modulation function is derived for cylindrically-curved metasurfaces, where the impedance modulation is along the cylinder axis. These metasurface antennas are referred to as axially-modulated cylindrical metasurface LWAs (AMCLWAs). The effect of curvature is modeled, the radiation characteristics are predicted analytically, and they are validated by simulations and measurements.

Communication-based applications, like 5G and 6G, require the generation of multiple beams with polarization diversity, which can be achieved using a class of impedance-modulated metasurfaces referred to as polarization-diverse holographic metasurfaces (PDHMs). PDHMs can form, one at a time, a pencil beam in the desired direction with horizontal polarization, vertical polarization, left-hand circular polarization (LHCP), or right-hand circular polarization (RHCP). These metasurface antennas are analyzed, designed, measured, and improved to include the ability to frequency scan.

In automotive radar and other imaging applications, the performance of metasurface antennas can be impacted by the formation of standing waves due to multiple reflections between the antenna and the target. The monostatic RCS of the metasurface antenna is reduced by modulating its surface impedance with a square wave, to avert multiple reflections. These square-wave-modulated metasurfaces are referred to as checkerboard metasurface LWAs, whose radiation and scattering characteristics, for normal incidence parallel polarization, are analyzed and measured.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Optical Simulation and Colloidal Lithography Fabrication of Aluminum Metasurfaces

Description

Solar energy has become one of the most popular renewable energy in human’s life because of its abundance and environment friendliness. To achieve high solar energy conversion efficiency, it usually

Solar energy has become one of the most popular renewable energy in human’s life because of its abundance and environment friendliness. To achieve high solar energy conversion efficiency, it usually requires surfaces to absorb selectivity within one spectral range of interest and reflect strongly over the rest of the spectrum. An economic method is always desired to fabricate spectrally selective surfaces with improved energy conversion efficiency. Colloidal lithography is a recently emerged way of nanofabrication, which has advantages of low-cost and easy operation.

In this thesis, aluminum metasurface structures are proposed based on colloidal lithography method. High Frequency Structure Simulator is used to numerically study optical properties and design the aluminum metasurfaces with selective absorption. Simulation results show that proposed aluminum metasurface structure on aluminum oxide thin film and aluminum substrate has a major reflectance dip, whose wavelength is tunable within the near-infrared and visible spectrum with metasurface size. As the metasurface is opaque due to aluminum film, it indicates strong wavelength-selective optical absorption, which is due to the magnetic resonance between the top metasurface and bottom Al film within the aluminum oxide layer.

The proposed sample is fabricated based on colloidal lithography method. Monolayer polystyrene particles of 500 nm are successfully prepared and transferred onto silicon substrate. Scanning electron microscope is used to check the surface topography. Aluminum thin film with 20-nm or 50-nm thickness is then deposited on the sample. After monolayer particles are removed, optical properties of samples are measured by micro-scale optical reflectance and transmittance microscope. Measured and simulated reflectance of these samples do not have frequency selective properties and is not sensitive to defects. The next step is to fabricate the Al metasurface on Al_2 O_3 and Al films to experimentally demonstrate the selective absorption predicted from the numerical simulation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Holographic Metasurface Leaky Wave Antennas

Description

Articially engineered two-dimensional materials, which are widely known as

metasurfaces, are employed as ground planes in various antenna applications. Due to

their nature to exhibit desirable electromagnetic behavior, they are also used

Articially engineered two-dimensional materials, which are widely known as

metasurfaces, are employed as ground planes in various antenna applications. Due to

their nature to exhibit desirable electromagnetic behavior, they are also used to design

waveguiding structures, absorbers, frequency selective surfaces, angular-independent

surfaces, etc. Metasurfaces usually consist of electrically small conductive planar

patches arranged in a periodic array on a dielectric covered ground plane. Holographic

Articial Impedance Surfaces (HAISs) are one such metasurfaces that are capable of

forming a pencil beam in a desired direction, when excited with surface waves. HAISs

are inhomogeneous surfaces that are designed by modulating its surface impedance.

This surface impedance modulation creates a periodical discontinuity that enables a

part of the surface waves to leak out into the free space leading to far-eld radia-

tion. The surface impedance modulation is based on the holographic principle. This

dissertation is concentrated on designing HAISs with

Desired polarization for the pencil beam

Enhanced bandwidth

Frequency scanning

Conformity to curved surfaces

HAIS designs considered in this work include both one and two dimensional mod-

ulations. All the designs and analyses are supported by mathematical models and

HFSS simulations.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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High-Directive Metasurface Printed Antennas for Low-Profile Applications

Description

Since the advent of High Impedance Surfaces (HISs) and metasurfaces, researchers

have proposed many low profile antenna configurations. HISs possess in-phase reflection, which reinforces the radiation, and enhances the directivity and

Since the advent of High Impedance Surfaces (HISs) and metasurfaces, researchers

have proposed many low profile antenna configurations. HISs possess in-phase reflection, which reinforces the radiation, and enhances the directivity and matching bandwidth of radiating elements. Most of the proposed dipole and loop element designs that have used HISs as a ground plane, have attained a maximum directivity of 8 dBi. While HISs are more attractive ground planes for low profile antennas, these HISs result in a low directivity as compared to PEC ground planes. Various studies have shown that Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC) ground planes are capable of achieving higher directivity, at the expense of matching efficiency, when the spacing

between the radiating element and the PEC ground plane is less than 0.25 lambda. To establish an efficient ground plane for low profile applications, PEC (Perfect Electric Conductor) and PMC (Perfect Magnetic Conductor) ground planes are examined in the vicinity of electric and magnetic radiating elements. The limitation of the two ground planes, in terms of radiation efficiency and the impedance matching, are discussed. Far-field analytical formulations are derived and the results are compared with full-wave EM simulations performed using the High-Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). Based on PEC and PMC designs, two engineered ground planes are proposed.

The designed ground planes depend on two metasurface properties; namely in-phase reflection and excitation of surface waves. Two ground plane geometries are considered. The first one is designed for a circular loop radiating element, which utilizes a

circular HIS ring deployed on a circular ground plane. The integration of the loop element with the circular HIS ground plane enhances the maximum directivity up to 10.5 dB with a 13% fractional bandwidth. The second ground plane is designed for a square loop radiating element. Unlike the first design, rectangular HIS patches are utilized to control the excitation of surface waves in the principal planes. The final design operates from 3.8 to 5 GHz (27% fractional bandwidth) with a stable broadside maximum realized gain up to 11.9 dBi. To verify the proposed designs, a prototype was fabricated and measurements were conducted. A good agreement between simulations and measurements was observed. Furthermore, multiple square ring elements are embedded within the periodic patches to form a surface wave planar antenna array. Linear and circular polarizations are proposed and compared to a conventional square ring array. The implementation of periodic patches results in a better matching bandwidth and higher broadside gain compared to a conventional array.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020