Matching Items (7)

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Experimental investigations and modeling of the strain sensing response of matrices containing metallic inclusions

Description

This study explores the possibility of two matrices containing metallic particulates to act as smart materials by sensing of strain due to the presence of the conducting particles in the

This study explores the possibility of two matrices containing metallic particulates to act as smart materials by sensing of strain due to the presence of the conducting particles in the matrix. The first matrix is a regular Portland cement-based one while the second is a novel iron-based, carbonated binder developed at ASU. Four different iron replacement percentages by volume (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) in a Portland cement matrix were selected, whereas the best performing iron carbonate matrix developed was used. Electrical impedance spectroscopy was used to obtain the characteristic Nyquist plot before and after application of flexural load. Electrical circuit models were used to extract the changes in electrical properties under application of load. Strain sensing behavior was evaluated with respect to application of different stress levels and varying replacement levels of the inclusion. A similar approach was used to study the strain sensing capabilities of novel iron carbonate binder. It was observed that the strain sensing efficiency increased with increasing iron percentage and the resistivity increased with increase in load (or applied stress) for both the matrices. It is also found that the iron carbonate binder is more efficient in strain sensing as it had a higher gage factor when compared to the OPC matrix containing metallic inclusions.

Analytical equations (Maxwell) were used to extract frequency dependent electrical conductivity and permittivity of the cement paste (or the host matrix), interface, inclusion (iron) and voids to develop a generic electro-mechanical coupling model to for the strain sensing behavior. COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2a was used as finite element analysis software to develop the model. A MATLAB formulation was used to generate the microstructure with different volume fractions of inclusions. Material properties were assigned (the frequency dependent electrical parameters) and the coupled structural and electrical physics interface in COMSOL was used to model the strain sensing response. The experimental change in resistance matched well with the simulated values, indicating the applicability of the model to predict the strain sensing response of particulate composite systems.

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  • 2017

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Subcycle fatigue crack growth formulation for constant and variable amplitude loading

Description

A previously developed small time scale fatigue crack growth model is improved, modified and extended with an emphasis on creating the simplest models that maintain the desired level of accuracy

A previously developed small time scale fatigue crack growth model is improved, modified and extended with an emphasis on creating the simplest models that maintain the desired level of accuracy for a variety of materials. The model provides a means of estimating load sequence effects by continuously updating the crack opening stress every cycle, in a simplified manner. One of the significant phenomena of the crack opening stress under negative stress ratio is the residual tensile stress induced by the applied compressive stress. A modified coefficient is introduced to determine the extent to which residual stress impact the crack closure and is observed to vary for different materials. Several other literature models for crack closure under constant loading are also reviewed and compared with the proposed model. The modified model is then shown to predict several sets of published test results under constant loading for a variety of materials.

The crack opening stress is formalized as a function of the plastic zone sizes at the crack tip and the current crack length, which provided a means of approximation, accounting for both acceleration and retardation effects in a simplified manner. A sensitivity parameter is introduced to modify the enlarged plastic zone due to overload, to better fit the delay cycles with the test data and is observed to vary for different materials. Furthermore, the interaction effect induced by the combination of overload and underload sequence is modeled by depleting the compressive plastic zone due to an overload with the tensile plastic zone due to an underload. A qualitative analysis showed the simulation capacity of the small time scale model under different load types. A good agreement between prediction and test data for several irregular load types proved the applicability of the small time scale model under variable amplitude loading.

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  • 2016

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Strain concentrations in polyethylene geomembranes adjacent to seams and scratches

Description

Laboratory testing was conducted to quantify strain concentrations adjacent to seams and scratches in high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes. The tensile strain profile of remnants meeting the ASTM criteria for

Laboratory testing was conducted to quantify strain concentrations adjacent to seams and scratches in high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes. The tensile strain profile of remnants meeting the ASTM criteria for wide-width tensile testing from samples of field seams recovered for construction quality assurance testing was evaluated using digital image correlation (DIC). Strains adjacent to scratches on laboratory prepared samples loaded in tension were also measured using DIC. The tensile strain in the zone adjacent to a seam and the tensile strain adjacent to a scratch were compared to the tensile strains calculated using theoretical strain concentration factors. The relationship between the maximum tensile strain adjacent to a seam and the global nominal strain in the sample was quantified for textured and smooth geomembranes of common thicknesses. Using statistical analysis of the data, bounds were developed for the allowable nominal tensile strain expected to induce maximum tensile strains adjacent to the seam less than or equal to the typical yield strain of HDPE geomembranes, at several confidence levels. Where nominal strain is the global or average strain applied to the sample and maximum strain is the largest tensile strain induced in the sample.

The reduction in the nominal yield strain due to a scratch in a HDPE geomembrane was also quantified. The yield strain was approximately the same as predicted using theoretical strain concentration factors. The difference in the average measured maximum strains adjacent to the seams of textured and smooth HDPE geomembranes was found to be statistically insignificant. However, maximum strains adjacent to extrusion welded seams were somewhat greater than adjacent to fusion welded seams for nominal strains on the order of 3% to 4%. The results of the testing program suggest that the nominal tensile strain should be limited to 4% around dual hot wedge seams and 3% around extrusion fillet seams to avoid maximum strains equal to 11%, a typical yield strain for HDPE geomembranes.

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  • 2017

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Systems health management and prognosis using physics based modeling and machine learning

Description

There is a concerted effort in developing robust systems health monitoring/management (SHM) technology as a means to reduce the life cycle costs, improve availability, extend life and minimize downtime of

There is a concerted effort in developing robust systems health monitoring/management (SHM) technology as a means to reduce the life cycle costs, improve availability, extend life and minimize downtime of various platforms including aerospace and civil infrastructure. The implementation of a robust SHM system requires a collaborative effort in a variety of areas such as sensor development, damage detection and localization, physics based models, and prognosis models for residual useful life (RUL) estimation. Damage localization and prediction is further complicated by geometric, material, loading, and environmental variabilities. Therefore, it is essential to develop robust SHM methodologies by taking into account such uncertainties. In this research, damage localization and RUL estimation of two different physical systems are addressed: (i) fatigue crack propagation in metallic materials under complex multiaxial loading and (ii) temporal scour prediction near bridge piers. With little modifications, the methodologies developed can be applied to other systems.

Current practice in fatigue life prediction is based on either physics based modeling or data-driven methods, and is limited to predicting RUL for simple geometries under uniaxial loading conditions. In this research, crack initiation and propagation behavior under uniaxial and complex biaxial fatigue loading is addressed. The crack propagation behavior is studied by performing extensive material characterization and fatigue testing under in-plane biaxial loading, both in-phase and out-of-phase, with different biaxiality ratios. A hybrid prognosis model, which combines machine learning with physics based modeling, is developed to account for the uncertainties in crack propagation and fatigue life prediction due to variabilities in material microstructural characteristics, crack localization information and environmental changes. The methodology iteratively combines localization information with hybrid prognosis models using sequential Bayesian techniques. The results show significant improvements in the localization and prediction accuracy under varying temperature.

For civil infrastructure, especially bridges, pier scour is a major failure mechanism. Currently available techniques are developed from a design perspective and provide highly conservative scour estimates. In this research, a fully probabilistic scour prediction methodology is developed using machine learning to accurately predict scour in real-time under varying flow conditions.

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  • 2016

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Effects of foreign object damage on fatigue behavior of two metallic materials used in a concentrating solar power plant

Description

Structural stability and performance of structural materials is important for energy production, whether renewable or non renewable, to have uninterrupted energy supply, that is economically feasible and safe. High temperature

Structural stability and performance of structural materials is important for energy production, whether renewable or non renewable, to have uninterrupted energy supply, that is economically feasible and safe. High temperature metallic materials used in the turbines of AORA, an Israel-based clean energy producer, often experience high temperature, high stress and foreign object damage (FOD). In this study, efforts were made to study the effects of FOD on the fatigue life of these materials and to understand their failure mechanisms. The foreign objects/debris recovered by AORA were characterized using Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) to identify composition and phases. To perform foreign object damage experiment a gas gun was built and results of XRD and EDS were used to select particles to mimic FOD in lab experiments for two materials of interest to AORA: Hastelloy X and SS 347. Electron Backscattering Diffraction, hardness and tensile tests were also performed to characterize microstructure and mechanical properties. Fatigue tests using at high temperature were performed on dog bone samples with and without FOD and the fracture surfaces and well as the regions affected by FOD were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to understand the failure mechanism. The findings of these study indicate that FOD is causing multiple secondary cracks at and around the impact sites, which can potentially grow to coalesce and remove pieces of material, and the multisite damage could also lead to lower fatigue lives, despite the fact that the FOD site was not always the most favorable for initiation of the fatal fatigue crack. It was also seen by the effect of FOD on fatigue life that SS 347 is more susceptible to FOD than Hastelloy X.

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  • 2016

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Probabilistic fatigue damage diagnostics and prognostics for metallic and composite materials

Description

In-situ fatigue damage diagnosis and prognosis is a challenging problem for both metallic and composite materials and structures. There are various uncertainties arising from material properties, component geometries, measurement noise,

In-situ fatigue damage diagnosis and prognosis is a challenging problem for both metallic and composite materials and structures. There are various uncertainties arising from material properties, component geometries, measurement noise, feature extraction techniques, and modeling errors. It is essential to manage and incorporate these uncertainties in order to achieve accurate damage detection and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction.

The aim of this study is to develop an integrated fatigue damage diagnosis and prognosis framework for both metallic and composite materials. First, Lamb waves are used as the in-situ damage detection technique to interrogate the damaged structures. Both experimental and numerical analysis for the Lamb wave propagation within aluminum are conducted. The RUL of lap joints under variable and constant fatigue loading is predicted using the Bayesian updating by incorporating damage detection information and various sources of uncertainties. Following this, the effect of matrix cracking and delamination in composite laminates on the Lamb wave propagation is investigated and a generalized probabilistic delamination size and location detection framework using Bayesian imaging method (BIM) is proposed and validated using the composite fatigue testing data. The RUL of the open-hole specimen is predicted using the overall stiffness degradation under fatigue loading. Next, the adjoint method-based damage detection framework is proposed considering the physics of heat conduction or elastic wave propagation. Different from the classical wave propagation-based method, the received signal under pristine condition is not necessary for estimating the damage information. This method can be successfully used for arbitrary damage location and shape profiling for any materials with higher accuracy and resolution. Finally, some conclusions and future work are generated based on the current investigation.

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  • 2016

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A critical plane-energy model for multiaxial fatigue life prediction of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials

Description

A new critical plane-energy model is proposed in this thesis for multiaxial fatigue life prediction of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials. Brief review of existing methods, especially on the critical plane-based

A new critical plane-energy model is proposed in this thesis for multiaxial fatigue life prediction of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials. Brief review of existing methods, especially on the critical plane-based and energy-based methods, are given first. Special focus is on one critical plane approach which has been shown to work for both brittle and ductile metals. The key idea is to automatically change the critical plane orientation with respect to different materials and stress states. One potential drawback of the developed model is that it needs an empirical calibration parameter for non-proportional multiaxial loadings since only the strain terms are used and the out-of-phase hardening cannot be considered. The energy-based model using the critical plane concept is proposed with help of the Mroz-Garud hardening rule to explicitly include the effect of non-proportional hardening under fatigue cyclic loadings. Thus, the empirical calibration for non-proportional loading is not needed since the out-of-phase hardening is naturally included in the stress calculation. The model predictions are compared with experimental data from open literature and it is shown the proposed model can work for both proportional and non-proportional loadings without the empirical calibration. Next, the model is extended for the fatigue analysis of heterogeneous materials integrating with finite element method. Fatigue crack initiation of representative volume of heterogeneous materials is analyzed using the developed critical plane-energy model and special focus is on the microstructure effect on the multiaxial fatigue life predictions. Several conclusions and future work is drawn based on the proposed study.

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  • 2016