Matching Items (4)

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A generalized orthotropic elasto-plastic material model for impact analysis

Description

Composite materials are now beginning to provide uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems such as airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation

Composite materials are now beginning to provide uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems such as airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. These structural systems are often subjected to impact loads and there is a pressing need for accurate prediction of deformation, damage and failure. There are numerous material models that have been developed to analyze the dynamic impact response of polymer matrix composites. However, there are key features that are missing in those models that prevent them from providing accurate predictive capabilities. In this dissertation, a general purpose orthotropic elasto-plastic computational constitutive material model has been developed to predict the response of composites subjected to high velocity impacts. The constitutive model is divided into three components – deformation model, damage model and failure model, with failure to be added at a later date. The deformation model generalizes the Tsai-Wu failure criteria and extends it using a strain-hardening-based orthotropic yield function with a non-associative flow rule. A strain equivalent formulation is utilized in the damage model that permits plastic and damage calculations to be uncoupled and capture the nonlinear unloading and local softening of the stress-strain response. A diagonal damage tensor is defined to account for the directionally dependent variation of damage. However, in composites it has been found that loading in one direction can lead to damage in multiple coordinate directions. To account for this phenomena, the terms in the damage matrix are semi-coupled such that the damage in a particular coordinate direction is a function of the stresses and plastic strains in all of the coordinate directions. The overall framework is driven by experimental tabulated temperature and rate-dependent stress-strain data as well as data that characterizes the damage matrix and failure. The developed theory has been implemented in a commercial explicit finite element analysis code, LS-DYNA®, as MAT213. Several verification and validation tests using a commonly available carbon-fiber composite, Toyobo’s T800/F3900, have been carried and the results show that the theory and implementation are efficient, robust and accurate.

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  • 2016

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Mechanisms for kink band evolution in polymer matrix composites: a digital image correlation and finite element study

Description

Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are attractive structural materials due to their high stiffness to low weight ratio. However, unidirectional PMCs have low shear strength and failure can occur along kink

Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are attractive structural materials due to their high stiffness to low weight ratio. However, unidirectional PMCs have low shear strength and failure can occur along kink bands that develop on compression due to plastic microbuckling that carry strains large enough to induce nonlinear matrix deformation. Reviewing the literature, a large fraction of the existing work is for uniaxial compression, and the effects of stress gradients, such as those present during bending, have not been as well explored, and these effects are bound to make difference in terms of kink band nucleation and growth. Furthermore, reports on experimental measurements of strain fields leading to and developing inside these bands in the presence of stress gradients are also scarce and need to be addressed to gain a full understanding of their behavior when UDCs are used under bending and other spatially complex stress states.

In a light to bridge the aforementioned gaps, the primary focus of this work is to understand mechanisms for kink band evolution under an influence of stress-gradients induced during bending. Digital image correlation (DIC) is used to measure strains inside and around the kink bands during 3-point bending of samples with 0°/90° stacking made of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fibers. Measurements indicate bands nucleate at the compression side and propagate into the sample carrying a mixture of large shear and normal strains (~33%), while also decreasing its bending stiffness. Failure was produced by a combination of plastic microbuckling and axial splitting. The microstructure of the kink bands was studied and used in a microstructurally explicit finite element model (FEM) to analyze stresses and strains at ply level in the samples during kink band evolution, using cohesive zone elements to represent the interfaces between plies. Cohesive element properties were deduced by a combination of delamination, fracture and three-point bending tests used to calibrate the FEMs. Modeling results show that the band morphology is sensitive to the shear and opening properties of the interfaces between the plies.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Theoretical and finite element analysis of origami and kirigami based structures

Description

Origami and kirigami, the technique of generating three-dimensional (3D) structures from two-dimensional (2D) flat sheets, are now more and more involved in scientific and engineering fields. Therefore, the development of

Origami and kirigami, the technique of generating three-dimensional (3D) structures from two-dimensional (2D) flat sheets, are now more and more involved in scientific and engineering fields. Therefore, the development of tools for their theoretical analysis becomes more and more important. Since much effort was paid on calculations based on pure mathematical consideration and only limited effort has been paid to include mechanical properties, the goal of my research is developing a method to analyze the mechanical behavior of origami and kirigami based structures. Mechanical characteristics, including nonlocal effect and fracture of the structures, as well as elasticity and plasticity of materials are studied. For calculation of relative simple structures and building of structures’ constitutive relations, analytical approaches were used. For more complex structures, finite element analysis (FEA), which is commonly applied as a numerical method for the analysis of solid structures, was utilized. The general study approach is not necessarily related to characteristic size of model. I believe the scale-independent method described here will pave a new way to understand the mechanical response of a variety of origami and kirigami based structures under given mechanical loading.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Effects of dynamic material strength on hydrodynamic instability and damage evolution in shock loaded copper

Description

Characterization and modeling of deformation and failure in metallic materials under extreme conditions, such as the high loads and strain rates found under shock loading due to explosive detonation and

Characterization and modeling of deformation and failure in metallic materials under extreme conditions, such as the high loads and strain rates found under shock loading due to explosive detonation and high velocity-impacts, are extremely important for a wide variety of military and industrial applications. When a shock wave causes stress in a material that exceeds the elastic limit, plasticity and eventually spallation occur in the material. The process of spall fracture, which in ductile materials stems from strain localization, void nucleation, growth and coalescence, can be caused by microstructural heterogeneity. The analysis of void nucleation performed from a microstructurally explicit simulation of a spall damage evolution in a multicrystalline copper indicated triple junctions as the preferred sites for incipient damage nucleation revealing 75% of them with at least two grain boundaries with misorientation angle between 20-55°. The analysis suggested the nature of the boundaries connecting at a triple junction is an indicator of their tendency to localize spall damage. The results also showed that damage propagated preferentially into one of the high angle boundaries after voids nucleate at triple junctions. Recently the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) and the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) have been used to deduce dynamic material strength at very high pressures and strain rates. The RMI is used in this work since it allows using precise diagnostics such as Transient Imaging Displacement Interferometry (TIDI) due to its slower linear growth rate. The Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) model is used to study the effects of dynamic strength on the behavior of samples with a fed-thru RMI, induced via direct laser drive on a perturbed surface, on stability of the shock front and the dynamic evolution of the amplitudes and velocities of the perturbation imprinted on the back (flat) surface by the perturbed shock front. Simulation results clearly showed that the amplitude of the hydrodynamic instability increases with a decrease in strength and vice versa and that the amplitude of the perturbed shock front produced by the fed-thru RMI is also affected by strength in the same way, which provides an alternative to amplitude measurements to study strength effects under dynamic conditions. Simulation results also indicate the presence of second harmonics in the surface perturbation after a certain time, which were also affected by the material strength.

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  • 2016