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A test and confidence set for comparing the location of quadratic growth curves

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Quadratic growth curves of 2nd degree polynomial are widely used in longitudinal studies. For a 2nd degree polynomial, the vertex represents the location of the curve in the XY plane. For a quadratic growth curve, we propose an approximate confidence

Quadratic growth curves of 2nd degree polynomial are widely used in longitudinal studies. For a 2nd degree polynomial, the vertex represents the location of the curve in the XY plane. For a quadratic growth curve, we propose an approximate confidence region as well as the confidence interval for x and y-coordinates of the vertex using two methods, the gradient method and the delta method. Under some models, an indirect test on the location of the curve can be based on the intercept and slope parameters, but in other models, a direct test on the vertex is required. We present a quadratic-form statistic for a test of the null hypothesis that there is no shift in the location of the vertex in a linear mixed model. The statistic has an asymptotic chi-squared distribution. For 2nd degree polynomials of two independent samples, we present an approximate confidence region for the difference of vertices of two quadratic growth curves using the modified gradient method and delta method. Another chi-square test statistic is derived for a direct test on the vertex and is compared to an F test statistic for the indirect test. Power functions are derived for both the indirect F test and the direct chi-square test. We calculate the theoretical power and present a simulation study to investigate the power of the tests. We also present a simulation study to assess the influence of sample size, measurement occasions and nature of the random effects. The test statistics will be applied to the Tell Efficacy longitudinal study, in which sound identification scores and language protocol scores for children are modeled as quadratic growth curves for two independent groups, TELL and control curriculum. The interpretation of shift in the location of the vertices is also presented.

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2015