Matching Items (6)

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The home impact on self-efficacy for self-regulated learning during mid-to-late adolescence

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School and educational psychologists have a shared imperative to understand the complex inter-play of a student’s home life and perceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is the central facet of Bandura’s social cognitive

School and educational psychologists have a shared imperative to understand the complex inter-play of a student’s home life and perceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is the central facet of Bandura’s social cognitive theory (SCT, 1986, 1997). The current study improved upon the extant literature by exploring how home life in Arizona, Arkansas, California, and Oklahoma impacts the self-efficacy for self-regulated learning of mid-to-late adolescents. Although it is difficult to identify how specific aspects of life (including home life) matter for particular areas of functioning, the present study explored self-efficacy for self-regulated learning through the lens of three scales of the Late Adolescence version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory (LA-HOME) (Caldwell & Bradley, 2016). The LA-HOME documents actions, objects, events and conditions connected with the home environment of children ages 16 to 20, who are still residing at home with parents or guardians (Caldwell & Bradley, 2016). This paper addresses the following research question: How are various aspects of the home life of mid-to-late adolescents, namely (1) modeling and encouragement of maturity, (2) family companionship and investment in adolescent, and (3) warmth, acceptance, and responsiveness, associated with self-efficacy for self-regulated learning? The sample of 333 adolescents is quite diverse demographically; it includes variations in family composition, race/ethnicity, household SES, language spoken in the home, and geography (rural, urban, suburban). The study utilizes a sub-sample of adolescents from the larger study who were 15 to 19 years of age (N = 333). Descriptive statistics, means, and standard deviations are reported for continuous variables, frequencies are reported for categorical variables, and correlations are presented. A hierarchical regression model was estimated in two steps. The first step included the complete set of control variables (household income, ethnicity, gender, and adolescent general health and depressive symptoms), and the second step included the set of three home life indicators. The hierarchical regression model had good fit. Study assets and limitations, as well as alternate theories for consideration and directions for future research, are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Collateral effects of a family-focused behavioral intervention on physical activity

Description

There are significant and wide-ranging health benefits of physical activity, yet the majority of adolescents in the United States do not engage in the recommended amount. This poses a significant

There are significant and wide-ranging health benefits of physical activity, yet the majority of adolescents in the United States do not engage in the recommended amount. This poses a significant public health challenge. Parents have a substantial influence on adolescents' levels of activity, indicating that parenting may be an especially salient target of interventions designed to promote physical activity. The current study tested the hypothesis that a family intervention to promote effective parenting would have a positive collateral effect on adolescent physical activity. This study also tested whether the increase in activity was mediated by changes in parental monitoring and family relationship quality. Furthermore, the current study assessed whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between parental monitoring and physical activity, such that increased parental monitoring predicted increases in physical activity for girls, but not for boys. Participants were 232 adolescents at risk for behavior problems drawn from a larger randomized controlled trial of the Family Check-Up. Adolescents completed questionnaires and participated in a family assessment with their caregivers in the 6th through 9th grades. Youth randomized to the intervention reported significantly more physical activity at follow-up relative to controls. Results failed to confirm the role of family factors as mediators of the effect of the intervention on physical activity. When gender was considered as a moderator, it appeared that parental monitoring was strongly and positively correlated with physical activity for girls, but not for boys. While the mechanism by which the Family Check-Up leads to increased physical activity remains unclear, its robust effects suggest that family intervention can be used to promote physical activity and might therefore have further-reaching health benefits.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Grieving adolescents co-perform collective compassion in a concert of emotions as they stop! in the name of love at Comfort Zone Camp

Description

The death of a parent or sibling for youth under age 18 is life-altering and necessitates support and opportunities for expressing grief. Scholarship from psychology and medical disciplines often equates

The death of a parent or sibling for youth under age 18 is life-altering and necessitates support and opportunities for expressing grief. Scholarship from psychology and medical disciplines often equates youthful grieving as a disease to be cured rather than a natural process to be experienced. Stage-based grief models explain adults coping with loss of loved ones by working through a series of discrete phases mostly tied to deficit-based emotions such as anger or depression. Progressive grief models have been emerging throughout the past 20 years in response to stage-based models; however these models tend to highlight deficit-based emotions and are applied to youth as afterthoughts. Thus, there is a noticeable absence of research exploring positive or strength-based emotions in adolescent grief from a communicative, youth-centered perspective. A communicative approach to exploring adolescent grief narratives offers a practical yet pliable theoretical lens for interpreting meaning from mourning. Using qualitative methods, I conducted full participant research as a volunteer with Comfort Zone Camp, a national organization sponsoring weekend-long grief camps for youth. I engaged in participant observation while volunteering to explore the communicative processes of 26 grieving adolescents and also conducted post-camp follow-up interviews with youth, parents, and adult volunteers. Analysis was based on 192 field work hours, 11 interview hours, artifacts, and camp documents. Findings of the dissertation indicate grieving adolescents use communicative processes, including sharing emotional pieces, co-authoring loss, and naming hurt, to perform a range of emotions. Along with deficit-based emotions, grieving adolescents perform strength-based emotions, including confidence, forgiveness, happiness, deservingness, hope, gratitude, resilience, love, and compassion. Evidence also supports that grieving campers performed compassion individually and in groups. Theoretically, this dissertation expands on existing grief theory by demonstrating that adolescents communicate strength-based emotions in grief, captured visually in the Concert of Emotions model. This study expands on compassion theory by exploring implications of collective compassion expressions. Specifically, this dissertation offers the co-performing sub-process to account for collective compassion extending past compassion models that focus on individual expressions. Practically, this research yields new understanding into how grieving adolescents constitute themselves as compassionate, helpful contributors as they face loss.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Exploring the stability and instability of aggressors, victims and aggressive-victims from childhood to adolescence

Description

It is widely recognized that peer-directed aggression and victimization are pervasive social problems that impact school-aged children and adolescents. This study investigated the developmental course of aggression and victimization, and

It is widely recognized that peer-directed aggression and victimization are pervasive social problems that impact school-aged children and adolescents. This study investigated the developmental course of aggression and victimization, and more specifically, addressed three primary aims. First, distinct subgroups of children were identified based on similarities and differences in their physical, verbal and relational aggression and victimization. Second, developmental stability (and instability) were assessed by examining the extent to which individuals remain (or change) subgroups throughout childhood and adolescence. Third, group classifications and transitions over time were assessed as a function of children’s individual characteristics and their relational and contextual experiences.

The sample for this longitudinal study consisted of 482 children (50% females) who were followed over time from grades 1 to 11. Multiple-informant data on children’s physical, verbal and relational aggression and victimization (peer-reports), individual characteristics including emotion dysregulation, withdrawn behaviors (teacher-reports), and hostile and self-blaming attributions (self-reports), and their relational and contextual experiences including peer rejection, friendships, social hierarchy and classroom aggression (peer-reports) were assessed in grades 1, 5, 8, and 11. Data analyses primarily consisted of a series of person-centered methods including latent profile and latent transition analyses.

Most of the identified subgroups (e.g., aggressors, victims and aggressive-victims) were distinguishable by their frequencies (i.e., levels) of aggression and victimization, rather than forms (physical, verbal and relational), with the exception of one group that appeared to be more form-specific (i.e., relational aggressive-victims). Among children in each group there was a modest degree of intra-individual stability, and findings elucidated how some groups appeared to be more stable than others as well as developmental differences. Although group stability was fairly common across all groups, and over time, patterns of instability also emerged.

The combination of trends reflecting both stability and instability support the perspective that the development of aggression in childhood and adolescence is characterized by heterogeneity. In contrast to perspectives that highlight the individual stability of aggression (e.g., that it is a stable behavioral style or individual disposition), findings elucidate the individual, relational and contextual mechanisms by which developmental stability and instability were more pronounced.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The effects of father involvement in adolescence on cortisol reactivity in young adulthood: the mediating role of perceived mattering

Description

Research suggests that early family relationships have critical influences on later physical and psychological health, but most studies have focused on the influence of mothers ignoring the unique impacts of

Research suggests that early family relationships have critical influences on later physical and psychological health, but most studies have focused on the influence of mothers ignoring the unique impacts of fathers. One mechanism by which families may transmit risk is by repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the short-term that leads to adult neurobiological dysregulaton, evident in hyper- or hypo-cortisol levels. Using 218 father-child dyads from the Parent and Youth Study (PAYS), the current study investigated whether father involvement in adolescence predicted youth cortisol AUCg and reactivity to a stress task in young adulthood, and whether this relation was mediated by youth perceptions of mattering to their fathers in adolescence. Results revealed that higher father-reported father involvement predicted lower cortisol AUCg in youth when mattering was included in the model, although father involvement was not a statistically significant predictor of AUCg or cortisol reactivity when mattering was not included. Additionally, children who reported higher father involvement also reported higher feelings of mattering, but this association was only statistically significant for girls and European American youth. Youth feelings of mattering did not predict their cortisol reactivity or AUCg in young adulthood. Results suggest that future research should include fathers when investigating the effects of family relationships on youth psychophysiological development.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Adolescents' emotional well-being during developmental turning points: help and hindrance from interpersonal relationships

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In two complementary studies, I used an innovative ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine associations between adolescents’ daily interactions with parents and peers and their mood states during two

In two complementary studies, I used an innovative ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine associations between adolescents’ daily interactions with parents and peers and their mood states during two developmentally normative, yet demanding contexts: romantic relationships and the transition to college. The first study examined how adolescents’ daily romantic relationship experiences (e.g., romantic emotionality, conflict, affiliation) were related to negative affective states. Eighty-eight adolescent romantic couples (Mage = 16.74 , SD = 0.96; 44% Latina/o, 42% White) completed short electronic surveys twice-weekly for 12 weeks, which assessed their affective states and their relationship processes (24 total possible surveys). Results indicated that greater conflict and negative romantic emotionality predicted greater within-person fluctuations in same-day negative affect. Greater daily affiliation with a romantic partner predicted slightly lower levels of same-day negative affect; positive romantic emotionality did not significantly predict negative affect.

Study 2 examined first-year college students’ growth trajectories in positive and negative affect across the transition to college (i.e., spanning the entire first semester), predicted said trajectories and daily affective states. Participants were 146 first-year college students from a large southwestern university entering their first semester of college (Mage = 17.8, SD = 0.5). Electronic diary surveys were administered to students twice weekly between July and December of 2014, so as to span the transition to college and the entire first semester, and assessed daily affective states and interpersonal interactions. Results indicated that students decreased in their positive affect gradually across the first semester, but remained stable in their negative affect. Significant variability emerged around these average trends, and was predicted by indices of conflict and involvement with parents and friends. Generally, greater involvement with friends and parents was associated with greater positive and less negative affect, whereas greater conflict with these important social groups predicted greater negative affect. Together, these studies underscore the importance of positive attachments during developmentally-challenging contexts experienced in adolescence.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017