Matching Items (7)

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ZnTe nanostructural synthesis for electronic and optoelectronic devices

Description

Zinc telluride (ZnTe) is an attractive II-VI compound semiconductor with a direct

bandgap of 2.26 eV that is used in many applications in optoelectronic devices. Compared

to the two dimensional (2D) thin-film

Zinc telluride (ZnTe) is an attractive II-VI compound semiconductor with a direct

bandgap of 2.26 eV that is used in many applications in optoelectronic devices. Compared

to the two dimensional (2D) thin-film semiconductors, one-dimensional (1D)

nanowires can have different electronic properties for potential novel applications.

In this work, we present the study of ZnTe nanowires (NWs) that are synthesized

through a simple vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. By controlling the presence or

the absence of Au catalysts and controlling the growth parameters such as growth

temperature, various growth morphologies of ZnTe, such as thin films and nanowires

can be obtained. The characterization of the ZnTe nanostructures and films was

performed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

(EDX), high- resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), X-ray

diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectroscopy and light scattering

measurement. After confirming the crystal purity of ZnTe, two-terminal diodes and

three-terminal transistors were fabricated with both nanowire and planar nano-sheet

configurations, in order to correlate the nanostructure geometry to device performance

including field effect mobility, Schottky barrier characteristics, and turn-on

characteristics. Additionally, optoelectronic properties such as photoconductive gain

and responsivity were compared against morphology. Finally, ZnTe was explored in

conjunction with ZnO in order to form type-II band alignment in a core-shell nanostructure.

Various characterization techniques including scanning electron microscopy,

energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy , x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis

reflectance spectra and photoluminescence were used to investigate the modification

of ZnO/ZnTe core/shell structure properties. In PL spectra, the eliminated PL intensity

of ZnO wires is primarily attributed to the efficient charge transfer process

occurring between ZnO and ZnTe, due to the band alignment in the core/shell structure. Moreover, the result of UV-vis reflectance spectra corresponds to the band

gap energy of ZnO and ZnTe, respectively, which confirm that the sample consists of

ZnO/ZnTe core/shell structure of good quality.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Development of a co-deposition method for deposition of low-contamination pyrite thin films

Description

Pyrite is a 0.95 eV bandgap semiconductor which is purported to have great potential in widespread, low–cost photovoltaic cells. A thorough material selection process was used in the design of

Pyrite is a 0.95 eV bandgap semiconductor which is purported to have great potential in widespread, low–cost photovoltaic cells. A thorough material selection process was used in the design of a pyrite sequential vapor deposition chamber aimed at reducing and possibly eliminating contamination during thin film growth. The design process focused on identifying materials that do not produce volatile components when exposed to high temperatures and high sulfur pressures. Once the materials were identified and design was completed, the ultra–high vacuum growth system was constructed and tested.

Pyrite thin films were deposited using the upgraded sequential vapor deposition chamber by varying the substrate temperature from 250°C to 420°C during deposition, keeping sulfur pressure constant at 1 Torr. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) results showed that all contaminants in the films were reduced in concentration by orders of magnitude from those grown with the previous system. Characterization techniques of Rutherford Back–scattering Spectrometry (RBS), X–Ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Optical Profilometry and UV/Vis/Near–IR Spectroscopy were performed on the deposited thin films. The results indicate that stoichiometric ratio of S:Fe, structural–quality (epitaxy), optical roughness and percentage of pyrite in the deposited thin films improve with increase in deposition temperature. A Tauc plot of the optical measurements indicates that the pyrite thin films have a bandgap of 0.94 eV.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Polarization and electronic state configuration of III-N surfaces and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectric interfaces

Description

GaN and AlGaN have shown great potential in next-generation power and RF electronics. However, these devices are limited by reliability issues such as leakage current and current collapse that result

GaN and AlGaN have shown great potential in next-generation power and RF electronics. However, these devices are limited by reliability issues such as leakage current and current collapse that result from surface and interface states on GaN and AlGaN. This dissertation, therefore, examined these electronic states, focusing on the following two points:

First, the surface electronic state configuration was examined with regards to the polarization bound 1013 charges/cm2 that increases with aluminum content. This large bound charge requires compensation either externally by surface states or internally by the space charge regions as relates to band bending. In this work, band bending was measured after different surface treatments of GaN and AlGaN to determine the effects of specific surface states on the electronic state configuration. Results showed oxygen-terminated N-face GaN, Ga-face GaN, and Ga-face Al0.25Ga0.75N surface were characterized by similar band bending regardless of the polarization bound charge, suggesting a Fermi level pinning state ~0.4-0.8 eV below the conduction band minimum. On oxygen-free Ga-face GaN, Al0.15Ga0.85N, Al0.25Ga0.75N, and Al0.35Ga0.65N, band bending increased slightly with aluminum content and thus did not exhibit the same pinning behavior; however, there was still significant compensating charge on these surfaces (~1013 charges/cm2). This charge is likely related to nitrogen vacancies and/or gallium dangling bonds.

In addition, this wozrk investigated the interface electronic state configuration of dielectric/GaN and AlGaN interfaces with regards to deposition conditions and aluminum content. Specifically, oxygen plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) was used to deposit SiO2. Growth temperature was shown to influence the film quality, where room temperature deposition produced the highest quality films in terms of electrical breakdown. In addition, the valence band offsets (VBOs) appeared to decrease with the deposition temperature, which likely related to an electric field across the Ga2O3 interfacial layer. VBOs were also determined with respect to aluminum content at the PEALD-SiO2/AlxGa1-xN interface, giving 3.0, 2.9, 2.9, and 2.8 eV for 0%, 15%, 25%, and 35% aluminum content, respectively—with corresponding conduction band offsets of 2.5, 2.2, 1.9, and 1.8 eV. This suggests the largest difference manifests in the conduction band, which is in agreement with the charge neutrality level model.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Synthesis and properties of Sn-based group IV alloys

Description

Sn-based group IV materials such as Ge1-xSnx and Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys have great potential for developing Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) compatible devices on Si because of their tunable band structure

Sn-based group IV materials such as Ge1-xSnx and Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys have great potential for developing Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) compatible devices on Si because of their tunable band structure and lattice constants by controlling Si and/or Sn contents. Growth of Ge1-xSnx binaries through Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) started in the early 1980s, producing Ge1-xSnx epilayers with Sn concentrations varying from 0 to 100%. A Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) method was developed in the early 2000s for growing Ge1-xSnx alloys of device quality, by utilizing various chemical precursors. This method dominated the growth of Ge1-xSnx alloys rapidly because of the great crystal quality of Ge1-xSnx achieved. As the first practical ternary alloy completely based on group IV elements, Ge1-x-ySixSny decouples bandgap and lattice constant, becoming a prospective CMOS compatible alloy. At the same time, Ge1-x-ySixSny ternary system could serve as a thermally robust alternative to Ge1-ySny binaries given that it becomes a direct semiconductor at a Sn concentration of 6%-10%. Ge1-x-ySixSny growths by CVD is summarized in this thesis. With the Si/Sn ratio kept at ~3.7, the ternary alloy system is lattice matched to Ge, resulting a tunable direct bandgap of 0.8-1.2 eV. With Sn content higher than Si content, the ternary alloy system could have an indirect-to-direct transition, as observed for Ge1-xSnx binaries. This thesis summarizes the development of Ge1-xSnx and Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys through MBE and CVD in recent decades and introduces an innovative direct injection method for synthesizing Ge1-x-ySixSny ternary alloys with Sn contents varying from 5% to 12% and Si contents kept at 1%-2%. Grown directly on Si (100) substrates in a Gas-phase Molecular Epitaxy (GSME) reactor, both intrinsic and n-type doped Ge1-x-ySixSny with P with thicknesses of 250-760 nm have been achieved by deploying gas precursors Ge4H10, Si4H10, SnD4 and P(SiH3)3 at the unprecedented low growth temperatures of 190-220 °C. Compressive strain is reduced and crystallinity of the Ge1-x-ySixSny epilayer is improved after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatments. High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HR-XRD), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscope (XTEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) have been combined to characterize the structural properties of the Ge1-x-ySixSny samples, indicating good crystallinity and flat surfaces.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Characterization of cubic boron nitride interfaces with in situ photoelectron spectroscopy

Description

Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has potential for electronic applications as an electron emitter and serving as a base material for diodes, transistors, etc. However, there has been limited research on

Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has potential for electronic applications as an electron emitter and serving as a base material for diodes, transistors, etc. However, there has been limited research on c-BN reported, and many of the electronic properties of c-BN and c-BN interfaces have yet to be reported. This dissertation focused on probing thin film c-BN deposited via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with in situ photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). PES measurements were used to characterize the electronic properties of c-BN films and interfaces with vacuum and diamond. First, the interface between c-BN and vacuum were characterized with ultraviolet PES (UPS). UPS measurements indicated that as-deposited c-BN, H2 plasma treated c-BN, and annealed c-BN post H2 plasma treatment exhibited negative electron affinity surfaces. A dipole model suggested dipoles from H-terminated N surface sites were found to be responsible for the NEA surface. Then, Si was introduced into c-BN films to realize n-type doped c-BN. The valence structure and work function of c-BN:Si films were characterized with XPS and UPS measurements. Measurements were unable to confirm n-type character, and it is concluded that silicon nitride formation was the primary effect for the observations. Finally, XPS measurements were employed to measure the band offsets at the c-BN/diamond interface. Measurements indicated the valence band maximum (VBM) of c-BN was positioned ~0.8 eV above the VBM of diamond.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Exploration of the cold-wall CVD synthesis of monolayer MoS2 and WS2

Description

A highly uniform and repeatable method for synthesizing the single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) molybdenum disulfide, MoS2, and tungsten disulfide, WS2, was developed. This method employed chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

A highly uniform and repeatable method for synthesizing the single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) molybdenum disulfide, MoS2, and tungsten disulfide, WS2, was developed. This method employed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of precursors in a custom built cold-wall reaction chamber designed to allow independent control over the growth parameters. Iterations of this reaction chamber were employed to overcome limitations to the growth method. First, molybdenum trioxide, MoO3, and S were co-evaporated from alumina coated W baskets to grow MoS2 on SiO2/Si substrates. Using this method, films were found to have repeatable coverage, but unrepeatable morphology. Second, the reaction chamber was modified to include a pair of custom bubbler delivery systems to transport diethyl sulfide (DES) and molybdenum hexacarbonyl (MHC) to the substrate as a S and Mo precursors. Third, tungsten hexacarbonyl (WHC) replaced MHC as a transition metal precursor for the synthesis of WS2 on Al2O3, substrates. This method proved repeatable in both coverage and morphology allowing the investigation of the effect of varying the flow of Ar, varying the substrate temperature and varying the flux of DES to the sample. Increasing each of these parameters was found to decrease the nucleation density on the sample and, with the exception of the Ar flow, induce multi-layer feature growth. This combination of precursors was also used to investigate the reported improvement in feature morphology when NaCl is placed upstream of the substrate. This was found to have no effect on experiments in the configurations used. A final effort was made to adequately increase the feature size by switching from DES to hydrogen sulfide, H2S, as a source of S. Using H2S and WHC to grow WS2 films on Al2O3, it was found that increasing the substrate temperature and increasing the H2S flow both decrease nucleation density. Increasing the H2S flow induced bi-layer growth. Ripening of synthesized WS2 crystals was demonstrated to occur when the sample was annealed, post-growth, in an Ar, H2, and H2S flow. Finally, it was verified that the final H2S and WHC growth method yielded repeatability and uniformity matching, or improving upon, the other methods and precursors investigated.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Nucleation and growth of single layer graphene on supported Cu catalysts by cold wall chemical vapor deposition

Description

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is the most widely used method to grow large-scale single layer graphene. However, a systematic experimental study of the relationship between growth parameters and graphene film

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is the most widely used method to grow large-scale single layer graphene. However, a systematic experimental study of the relationship between growth parameters and graphene film morphology, especially in the industrially preferred cold wall CVD, has not been undertaken previously. This research endeavored to address this and provide comprehensive insight into the growth physics of graphene on supported solid and liquid Cu films using cold wall CVD.

A multi-chamber UHV system was customized and transformed into a cold wall CVD system to perform experiments. The versatile growth process was completely custom-automated by controlling the process parameters with LabVIEW. Graphene growth was explored on solid electrodeposited, recrystallized and thin sputter deposited Cu films as well as on liquid Cu supported on W/Mo refractory substrates under ambient pressure using Ar, H₂ and CH₄ mixtures.

The results indicate that graphene grown on Cu films using cold wall CVD follows a classical two-dimensional nucleation and growth mechanism. The nucleation density decreases and average size of graphene crystallites increases with increasing dilution of the CH₄/H₂ mixture by Ar, decrease in total flow rate and decrease in CH₄:H₂ ratio at a fixed substrate temperature and chamber pressure. Thus, the resulting morphological changes correspond with those that would be expected if the precursor deposition rate was varied at a fixed substrate temperature for physical deposition using thermal evaporation. The evolution of graphene crystallite boundary morphology with decreasing effective C deposition rate indicates the effect of edge diffusion of C atoms along the crystallite boundaries, in addition to H₂ etching, on graphene crystallite shape.

The roles of temperature gradient, chamber pressure and rapid thermal heating in C precursor-rich environment on graphene growth morphology on thin sputtered Cu films were explained. The growth mechanisms of graphene on substrates annealed under reducing and non-reducing environment were explained from the scaling functions of graphene island size distribution in the pre-coalescence regime. It is anticipated that applying the pre-coalescence size distribution method presented in this work to other 2D material systems may be useful for elucidating atomistic mechanisms of film growth that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018