Music intervention to prevent delirium among older patients admitted to a Trauma Intensive Care Unit and a Trauma Orthopedic Unit
Greater than half of older adults who are admitted to an acute care setting experience delirium with an estimated cost between four to twenty billion dollars annually in the United States. As a strategy to address the gap between research and practice, this feasibility study used the Roy Adaptation Model to provide a theoretical perspective for intervention design and evaluation, with a focus on modifying contextual stimuli in a Trauma Intensive Care and a Trauma Orthopedic Unit setting. The study sample included older hospitalized patients in a Trauma Intensive Care and a Trauma Orthopedic setting where there is a greater incidence for delirium. Study participants included two groups, with one group assigned to receive either a music intervention or usual care. The music intervention included pre-recorded music, delivered using an iPod player with soft headsets, with music self-selected from a collection of music compositions with musical elements of slow tempo and simple repetitive rhythm that influence delirium prevention. For the proposed study a music intervention dose included intervention delivery for 60 minutes, twice a day, over a three day period following admission. Physiologic variables measured included systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate, which were electronically monitored every four hours for the study. The Confusion Assessment Method was used as a screening tool to identify delirium in the admitted patients. Specific aims of this feasibility study were to (a) examine the feasibility of a music intervention designed to prevent delirium among older adults, and (b) evaluate the effects of a music intervention designed to prevent delirium among older adults. Findings indicate there was a significant music group by time interaction effect which suggests that change over time was different for the music and usual care group.