Matching Items (3)

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Correlation between physiological fluid shear and RpoS in regulating the stationary phase stress response in Salmonella

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Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative enteric pathogen that causes self-limiting gastroenteritis in healthy individuals and can cause systemic infections in those who are immunocompromised. During its

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative enteric pathogen that causes self-limiting gastroenteritis in healthy individuals and can cause systemic infections in those who are immunocompromised. During its natural lifecycle, S. Typhimurium encounters a wide variety of stresses it must sense and respond to in a dynamic and coordinated fashion to induce resistance and ensure survival. Salmonella is subjected to a series of stresses that include temperature shifts, pH variability, detergent-like bile salts, oxidative environments and changes in fluid shear levels. Previously, our lab showed that cultures of S. Typhimurium grown under physiological low fluid shear (LFS) conditions similar to those encountered in the intestinal tract during infection uniquely regulates the virulence, gene expression and pathogenesis-related stress responses of this pathogen during log phase. Interestingly, the log phase Salmonella mechanosensitive responses to LFS were independent of the master stress response sigma factor, RpoS, departing from our conventional understanding of RpoS regulation. Since RpoS is a growth phase dependent regulator with increased stability in stationary phase, the current study investigated the role of RpoS in mediating pathogenesis-related stress responses in stationary phase S. Typhimurium grown under LFS and control conditions. Specifically, stationary phase responses to acid, thermal, bile and oxidative stress were assayed. To our knowledge the results from the current study demonstrate the first report that the mechanical force of LFS globally alters the S. Typhimurium χ3339 stationary phase stress response independently of RpoS to acid and bile stressors but dependently on RpoS to oxidative and thermal stress. This indicates that fluid shear-dependent differences in acid and bile stress responses are regulated by alternative pathway(s) in S. Typhimurium, were the oxidative and thermal stress responses are regulated through RpoS in LFS conditions. Results from this study further highlight how bacterial mechanosensation may be important in promoting niche recognition and adaptation in the mammalian host during infection, and may lead to characterization of previously unidentified pathogenesis strategies.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Fluid shear force regulates the pathogenesis-related stress responses of invasive multidrug resistant Salmonella typhimurium 5579

Description

The emergence of invasive non-Typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections belonging to sequence type (ST) 313 are associated with severe bacteremia and high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Distinct features of ST313 strains

The emergence of invasive non-Typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections belonging to sequence type (ST) 313 are associated with severe bacteremia and high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Distinct features of ST313 strains include resistance to multiple antibiotics, extensive genomic degradation, and atypical clinical diagnosis including bloodstream infections, respiratory symptoms, and fever. Herein, I report the use of dynamic bioreactor technology to profile the impact of physiological fluid shear levels on the pathogenesis-related responses of ST313 pathovar, 5579. I show that culture of 5579 under these conditions induces profoundly different pathogenesis-related phenotypes than those normally observed when cultures are grown conventionally. Surprisingly, in response to physiological fluid shear, 5579 exhibited positive swimming motility, which was unexpected, since this strain was initially thought to be non-motile. Moreover, fluid shear altered the resistance of 5579 to acid, oxidative and bile stress, as well as its ability to colonize human colonic epithelial cells. This work leverages from and advances studies over the past 16 years in the Nickerson lab, which are at the forefront of bacterial mechanosensation and further demonstrates that bacterial pathogens are “hardwired” to respond to the force of fluid shear in ways that are not observed during conventional culture, and stresses the importance of mimicking the dynamic physical force microenvironment when studying host-pathogen interactions. The results from this study lay the foundation for future work to determine the underlying mechanisms operative in 5579 that are responsible for these phenotypic observations.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Characterizing the molecular genetic, phenotypic and virulence properties of the invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella strain D23580: an integrated approach

Description

Invasive salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 is a major health crisis in sub-Saharan Africa, with multidrug resistance and atypical clinical presentation challenging current treatment regimens and resulting

Invasive salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 is a major health crisis in sub-Saharan Africa, with multidrug resistance and atypical clinical presentation challenging current treatment regimens and resulting in high mortality. Moreover, the increased risk of spreading ST313 pathovars worldwide is of major concern, given global public transportation networks and increased populations of immunocompromised individuals (as a result of HIV infection, drug use, cancer therapy, aging, etc). While it is unclear as to how Salmonella ST313 strains cause invasive disease in humans, it is intriguing that the genomic profile of some of these pathovars indicates key differences between classic Typhimurium (broad host range), but similarities to human-specific typhoidal Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi. In an effort to advance fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis mechanisms of ST313 in humans, I report characterization of the molecular genetic, phenotypic and virulence profiles of D23580 (a representative ST313 strain). Preliminary studies to characterize D23580 virulence, baseline stress responses, and biochemical profiles, and in vitro infection profiles in human surrogate 3-D tissue culture models were done using conventional bacterial culture conditions; while subsequent studies integrated a range of incrementally increasing fluid shear levels relevant to those naturally encountered by D23580 in the infected host to understand the impact of biomechanical forces in altering these characteristics. In response to culture of D23580 under these conditions, distinct differences in transcriptional biosignatures, pathogenesis-related stress responses, in vitro infection profiles and in vivo virulence in mice were observed as compared to those of classic Salmonella pathovars tested.

Collectively, this work represents the first characterization of in vivo virulence and in vitro pathogenesis properties of D23580, the latter using advanced human surrogate models that mimic key aspects of the parental tissue. Results from these studies highlight the importance of studying infectious diseases using an integrated approach that combines actions of biological and physical networks that mimic the host-pathogen microenvironment and regulate pathogen responses.

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Date Created
  • 2015