Matching Items (8)

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Effects of increasing layer thickness in the laser powder bed fusion of inconel 718

Description

With the advancement of the Additive Manufacturing technology in the fields of metals, a lot of interest has developed in Laser Powder Bed (LPBF) for the Aerospace and Automotive industries.

With the advancement of the Additive Manufacturing technology in the fields of metals, a lot of interest has developed in Laser Powder Bed (LPBF) for the Aerospace and Automotive industries. With primary challenges like high cost and time associated with this process reducing the build time is a critical component. Being a layer by layer process increasing layer thickness causes a decrease in manufacturing time. In this study, effects of the change in layer thickness in the Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Inconel 718 were evaluated. The effects were investigated for 30, 60 and 80 μm layer thicknesses and were evaluated for Relative Density, Surface Roughness and Mechanical properties, for as-printed specimens not subjected to any heat treatment. The process was optimized to print dense pasts by varying three parameters: power, velocity and hatch distance. Significant change in some properties like true Ultimate Tensile Testing (UTS), %Necking and Yield Stress was observed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Novel materials and processing routes using alkali-activated systems

Description

This dissertation aims at developing novel materials and processing routes using alkali activated aluminosilicate binders for porous (lightweight) geopolymer matrices and 3D-printing concrete applications. The major research objectives are executed

This dissertation aims at developing novel materials and processing routes using alkali activated aluminosilicate binders for porous (lightweight) geopolymer matrices and 3D-printing concrete applications. The major research objectives are executed in different stages. Stage 1 includes developing synthesis routes, microstructural characterization, and performance characterization of a family of economical, multifunctional porous ceramics developed through geopolymerization of an abundant volcanic tuff (aluminosilicate mineral) as the primary source material. Metakaolin, silica fume, alumina powder, and pure silicon powder are also used as additional ingredients when necessary and activated by potassium-based alkaline agents. In Stage 2, a processing route was developed to synthesize lightweight geopolymer matrices from fly ash through carbonate-based activation. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) was used in this study to produce controlled pores through the release of CO2 during the low-temperature decomposition of Na2CO3. Stage 3 focuses on 3D printing of binders using geopolymeric binders along with several OPC-based 3D printable binders. In Stage 4, synthesis and characterization of 3D-printable foamed fly ash-based geopolymer matrices for thermal insulation is the focus. A surfactant-based foaming process, multi-step mixing that ensures foam jamming transition and thus a dry foam, and microstructural packing to ensure adequate skeletal density are implemented to develop foamed suspensions amenable to 3D-printing. The last stage of this research develops 3D-printable alkali-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag mixture. Slag is used as the source of aluminosilicate and shows excellent mechanical properties when activated by highly alkaline activator (NaOH + sodium silicate solution). However, alkali activated slag sets and hardens rapidly which is undesirable for 3D printing. Thus, a novel mixing procedure is developed to significantly extend the setting time of slag activated with an alkaline activator to suit 3D printing applications without the use of any retarding admixtures. This dissertation, thus advances the field of sustainable and 3D-printable matrices and opens up a new avenue for faster and economical construction using specialized materials.

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Date Created
  • 2019

A study of heating and degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/polycarbonate polymer due to ultraviolet lasers illumination during localized pre-deposition heating for fused filament fabrication 3D printing

Description

With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the

With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured in this method. The goal is to produce parts that mimic the strength characteristics of a comparable part of the same design and materials created using injection molding. In achieving this goal the production cost can be reduced by eliminating the initial investment needed for the creation of expensive tooling. This initial investment reduction will allow for a wider variant of products in smaller batch runs to be made available. This thesis implements the use of ultraviolet (UV) illumination for an in-process laser local pre-deposition heating (LLPH). By comparing samples with and without the LLPH process it is determined that applied energy that is absorbed by the polymer is converted to an increase in the interlayer temperature, and resulting in an observed increase in tensile strength over the baseline test samples. The increase in interlayer bonding thus can be considered the dominating factor over polymer degradation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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3D printed glucose monitoring sensor

Description

The American Diabetes Association reports that diabetes costs $322 billion annually and affects 29.1 million Americans. The high out-of-pocket cost of managing diabetes can lead to noncompliance causing serious and

The American Diabetes Association reports that diabetes costs $322 billion annually and affects 29.1 million Americans. The high out-of-pocket cost of managing diabetes can lead to noncompliance causing serious and expensive complications. There is a large market potential for a more cost-effective alternative to the current market standard of screen-printed self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) strips. Additive manufacturing, specifically 3D printing, is a developing field that is growing in popularity and functionality. 3D printers are now being used in a variety of applications from consumer goods to medical devices. Healthcare delivery will change as the availability of 3D printers expands into patient homes, which will create alternative and more cost-effective methods of monitoring and managing diseases, such as diabetes. 3D printing technology could transform this expensive industry. A 3D printed sensor was designed to have similar dimensions and features to the SMBG strips to comply with current manufacturing standards. To make the sensor electrically active, various conductive filaments were tested and the conductive graphene filament was determined to be the best material for the sensor. Experiments were conducted to determine the optimal print settings for printing this filament onto a mylar substrate, the industry standard. The reagents used include a mixture of a ferricyanide redox mediator and flavin adenine dinucleotide dependent glucose dehydrogenase. With these materials, each sensor only costs $0.40 to print and use. Before testing the 3D printed sensor, a suitable design, voltage range, and redox probe concentration were determined. Experiments demonstrated that this novel 3D printed sensor can accurately correlate current output to glucose concentration. It was verified that the sensor can accurately detect glucose levels from 25 mg/dL to 400 mg/dL, with an R2 correlation value as high as 0.97, which was critical as it covered hypoglycemic to hyperglycemic levels. This demonstrated that a 3D-printed sensor was created that had characteristics that are suitable for clinical use. This will allow diabetics to print their own test strips at home at a much lower cost compared to SMBG strips, which will reduce noncompliance due to the high cost of testing. In the future, this technology could be applied to additional biomarkers to measure and monitor other diseases.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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A study on the use of kilohertz acoustic energy for aluminum shaping and mass transport in ambient condition metal 3D printing

Description

This research work demonstrates the process feasibility of Ultrasonic Filament Modeling process as a metal additive manufacturing process. Additive manufacturing (or 3d printing) is the method to manufacture 3d objects

This research work demonstrates the process feasibility of Ultrasonic Filament Modeling process as a metal additive manufacturing process. Additive manufacturing (or 3d printing) is the method to manufacture 3d objects layer by layer. Current direct or indirect metal additive manufacturing processes either require a high power heat source like a laser or an electron beam, or require some kind of a post processing operation to produce net-shape fully-dense 3D components. The novel process of Ultrasonic Filament Modeling uses ultrasonic energy to achieve voxel deformation and inter-layer and intra-layer mass transport between voxels causing metallurgical bonding between the voxels. This enables the process to build net-shape 3D components at room temperature and ambient conditions. Two parallel mechanisms, ultrasonic softening and enhanced mass transport due to ultrasonic irradiation enable the voxel shaping and bonding respectively. This work investigates ultrasonic softening and the mass transport across voxels. Microstructural changes in aluminium during the voxel shaping have also been investigated. The temperature evolution during the process has been analyzed and presented in this work.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

Sample delivery enabled by 3D printing for reduced sample consumption and mix-and-inject serial crystallography at x-ray free electron lasers

Description

Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) with X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has enabled the determination of damage-free protein structures at ambient temperatures and of reaction intermediate species with time resolution on

Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) with X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has enabled the determination of damage-free protein structures at ambient temperatures and of reaction intermediate species with time resolution on the order of hundreds of femtoseconds. However, currently available XFEL facility X-ray pulse structures waste the majority of continuously injected crystal sample, requiring a large quantity (up to grams) of crystal sample to solve a protein structure. Furthermore, mix-and-inject serial crystallography (MISC) at XFEL facilities requires fast mixing for short (millisecond) reaction time points (𝑡"), and current sample delivery methods have complex fabrication and assembly requirements.

To reduce sample consumption during SFX, a 3D printed T-junction for generating segmented aqueous-in-oil droplets was developed. The device surface properties were characterized both with and without a surface coating for improved droplet generation stability. Additionally, the droplet generation frequency was characterized. The 3D printed device interfaced with gas dynamic virtual nozzles (GDVNs) at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and a relationship between the aqueous phase volume and the resulting crystal hit rate was developed. Furthermore, at the European XFEL (EuXFEL) a similar quantity and quality of diffraction data was collected for segmented sample delivery using ~60% less sample volume than continuous injection, and a structure of 3-deoxy-D-manno- octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase (KDO8PS) delivered by segmented injection was solved that revealed new structural details to a resolution of 2.8 Å.

For MISC, a 3D printed hydrodynamic focusing mixer for fast mixing by diffusion was developed to automate device fabrication and simplify device assembly. The mixer was characterized with numerical models and fluorescence microscopy. A variety of devices were developed to reach reaction intermediate time points, 𝑡", on the order of 100 – 103 ms. These devices include 3D printed mixers coupled to glass or 3D printed GDVNs and two designs of mixers with GDVNs integrated into the one device. A 3D printed mixer coupled to a glass GDVN was utilized at LCLS to study the oxidation of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), and a structure of the CcO Pr intermediate was determined at 𝑡" = 8 s.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Three dimensional printing and computational visualization for surgical planning and medical education

Description

The advent of medical imaging has enabled significant advances in pre-procedural planning, allowing cardiovascular anatomy to be visualized noninvasively before a procedure. However, absolute scale and tactile information are not

The advent of medical imaging has enabled significant advances in pre-procedural planning, allowing cardiovascular anatomy to be visualized noninvasively before a procedure. However, absolute scale and tactile information are not conveyed in traditional pre-procedural planning based on images alone. This information deficit fails to completely prepare clinicians for complex heart repair, where surgeons must consider the varied presentations of cardiac morphology and malformations. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization and 3D printing provide a mechanism to construct patient-specific, scale models of cardiovascular anatomy that surgeons and interventionalists can examine prior to a procedure. In addition, the same patient-specific models provide a valuable resource for educating future medical professionals. Instead of looking at idealized images on a computer screen or pages from medical textbooks, medical students can review a life-like model of patient anatomy.

In cases where surgical repair is insufficient to return the heart to normal function, a patient may proceed to advanced heart failure, and a heart transplant may be required. Unfortunately, a finite number of available donor hearts are available. A mechanical circulatory support (MCS) device can be used to bridge the time between heart failure and reception of a donor heart. These MCS devices are typically constructed for the adult population. Accordingly, the size associated to the device is a limiting factor for small adults or pediatric patients who often have smaller thoracic measurements. While current eligibility criteria are based on correlative measurements, the aforementioned 3D visualization capabilities can be leveraged to accomplish patient-specific fit analysis.

The main objectives of the work presented in this dissertation were 1) to develop and evaluate an optimized process for 3D printing cardiovascular anatomy for surgical planning and medical education and 2) to develop and evaluate computational tools to assess MCS device fit in specific patients. The evaluations for objectives 1 and 2 were completed with a collection of qualitative and quantitative validations. These validations include case studies to illustrate meaningful, qualitative results as well as quantitative results from surgical outcomes. The latter results present the first quantitative supporting evidence, beyond anecdotal case studies, regarding the efficacy of 3D printing for pre-procedural planning; this data is suitable as pilot data for clinical trials. The products of this work were used to plan 200 cardiovascular procedures (including 79 cardiothoracic surgeries at Phoenix Children's Hospital), via 3D printed heart models and assess MCS device fit in 29 patients across 6 countries.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Utilization of thermoplastic mounting studs for simple performance testing on hot mix asphalt

Description

The objective of the research is to test the use of 3D printed thermoplastic to produce fixtures which affix instrumentation to asphalt concrete samples used for Simple Performance Testing (SPT).

The objective of the research is to test the use of 3D printed thermoplastic to produce fixtures which affix instrumentation to asphalt concrete samples used for Simple Performance Testing (SPT). The testing is done as part of materials characterization to obtain properties that will help in future pavement designs. Currently, these fixtures (mounting studs) are made of expensive brass and cumbersome to clean with or without chemicals.

Three types of thermoplastics were utilized to assess the effect of temperature and applied stress on the performance of the 3D printed studs. Asphalt concrete samples fitted with thermoplastic studs were tested according to AASHTO & ASTM standards. The thermoplastics tested are: Polylactic acid (PLA), the most common 3D printing material; Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), a typical 3D printing material which is less rigid than PLA and has a higher melting temperature; Polycarbonate (PC), a strong, high temperature 3D printing material.

A high traffic volume Marshal mix design from the City of Phoenix was obtained and adapted to a Superpave mix design methodology. The mix design is dense-graded with nominal maximum aggregate size of ¾” inch and a PG 70-10 binder. Samples were fabricated and the following tests were performed: Dynamic Modulus |E*| conducted at five temperatures and six frequencies; Flow Number conducted at a high temperature of 50°C, and axial cyclic fatigue test at a moderate temperature of 18°C.

The results from SPT for each 3D printed material were compared to results using brass mounting studs. Validation or rejection of the concept was determined from statistical analysis on the mean and variance of collected SPT test data.

The concept of using 3D printed thermoplastic for mounting stud fabrication is a promising option; however, the concept should be verified with more extensive research using a variety of asphalt mixes and operators to ensure no bias in the repeatability and reproducibility of test results. The Polycarbonate (PC) had a stronger layer bonding than ABS and PLA while printing. It was recommended for follow up studies.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018