Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and adolescents. Patients with metastatic osteosarcoma are typically refractory to treatment. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) limit the development of metastatic osteosarcoma. I have investigated the role of Programmed Death Receptor-1 (PD-1) in limiting the efficacy of immune mediated control of metastatic osteosarcoma. I show that human metastatic, but not primary, osteosarcoma tumors express the ligand for PD-1 (PD-L1) and that tumor infiltrating CTL express PD-1, suggesting this pathway may limit CTL control of metastatic osteosarcoma in patients. PD-L1 is also expressed on the K7M2 osteosarcoma tumor cell line that establishes metastases in mice, and PD-1 is expressed on tumor infiltrating CTL during disease progression. Blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions dramatically improves the function of osteosarcoma-reactive CTL in vitro and in vivo, and results in decreased tumor burden and increased survival in the K7M2 mouse model of metastatic osteosarcoma. My results suggest that blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions in patients with metastatic osteosarcoma should be pursued as a therapeutic strategy. However, PD-1/PD-L1 blockade treated mice still succumb to disease due to selection of PD-L1 mAb resistant tumor cells via up-regulation of other co-inhibitory T cell receptors. Combinational α-CTLA-4 and α-PD-L1 blockade treated mice were able to completely eradicate metastatic osteosarcoma, and generate immunity to disease. These results suggest that blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions in patients with metastatic osteosarcoma, although improves survival, may lead to tumor resistance, requiring combinational immunotherapies to combat and eradicate disease.