Matching Items (7)

153363-Thumbnail Image.png

Increasing T cell immunity to metastatic osteosarcoma via modulation of inhibitory T cell receptors

Description

Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and adolescents. Patients with metastatic osteosarcoma are typically refractory to treatment. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) limit the development of metastatic osteosarcoma. I have investigated the role

Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and adolescents. Patients with metastatic osteosarcoma are typically refractory to treatment. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) limit the development of metastatic osteosarcoma. I have investigated the role of Programmed Death Receptor-1 (PD-1) in limiting the efficacy of immune mediated control of metastatic osteosarcoma. I show that human metastatic, but not primary, osteosarcoma tumors express the ligand for PD-1 (PD-L1) and that tumor infiltrating CTL express PD-1, suggesting this pathway may limit CTL control of metastatic osteosarcoma in patients. PD-L1 is also expressed on the K7M2 osteosarcoma tumor cell line that establishes metastases in mice, and PD-1 is expressed on tumor infiltrating CTL during disease progression. Blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions dramatically improves the function of osteosarcoma-reactive CTL in vitro and in vivo, and results in decreased tumor burden and increased survival in the K7M2 mouse model of metastatic osteosarcoma. My results suggest that blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions in patients with metastatic osteosarcoma should be pursued as a therapeutic strategy. However, PD-1/PD-L1 blockade treated mice still succumb to disease due to selection of PD-L1 mAb resistant tumor cells via up-regulation of other co-inhibitory T cell receptors. Combinational α-CTLA-4 and α-PD-L1 blockade treated mice were able to completely eradicate metastatic osteosarcoma, and generate immunity to disease. These results suggest that blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions in patients with metastatic osteosarcoma, although improves survival, may lead to tumor resistance, requiring combinational immunotherapies to combat and eradicate disease.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

153408-Thumbnail Image.png

CD8 T cell immunity to viral infection: a balance between protective and pathological responses

Description

Vaccination remains one of the most effective means for preventing infectious diseases. During viral infection, activated CD8 T cells differentiate into cytotoxic effector cells that directly kill infected cells and produce anti-viral cytokines. Further T cell differentiation results in a

Vaccination remains one of the most effective means for preventing infectious diseases. During viral infection, activated CD8 T cells differentiate into cytotoxic effector cells that directly kill infected cells and produce anti-viral cytokines. Further T cell differentiation results in a population of memory CD8 T cells that have the ability to self-renew and rapidly proliferate into effector cells during secondary infections. However during persistent viral infection, T cell differentiation is disrupted due to sustained antigen stimulation resulting in a loss of T cell effector function. Despite the development of vaccines for a wide range of viral diseases, efficacious vaccines for persistent viral infections have been challenging to design. Immunization against virus T cell epitopes has been proposed as an alternative vaccination strategy for persistent viral infections, such as HIV. However, vaccines that selectively engage T cell responses can result in inappropriate immune responses that increase, rather than prevent, disease. Quantitative models of virus infection and immune response were used to investigate how virus and immune system variables influence pathogenic versus protective T cell responses generated during persistent viral infection. It was determined that an intermediate precursor frequency of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells prior to LCMV infection resulted in maximum T cell mediated pathology. Increased pathology was independent of antigen sensitivity or the diversity of TCR in the CD8 T cell response, but was dependent on CD8 T cell production of TNF and the magnitude of initial virus exposure. The threshold for exhaustion of responding CD8 T cells ultimately influences the precursor frequency that causes enhanced disease.In addition, viral infection can occur in the context of co-infection by heterologous pathogens that modulate immune responses and/or disease. Co-infection of two unrelated viruses in their natural host, Ectromelia virus (ECTV) and Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice, were studied. ECTV infection can be a lethal infection in mice due in part to the blockade of antiviral cytokines, including Type I Interferons (IFN-I). It was determined that ECTV/LCMV co-infection results in decreased ECTV viral load and amelioration of ECTV-induced disease, presumably due to IFN-I induction by LCMV. However, immune responses to LCMV in ECTV co-infected mice were also lower compared to mice infected with LCMV alone and biased toward effector-memory cell generation. Thus, providing evidence for bi-directional effects of viral co-infection that modulate disease and immunity. Together the results suggest heterogeneity in T cell responses during vaccination with viral vectors may be in part due to heterologous virus infection or vaccine usage and that TNF-blockade may be useful for minimizing pathology while maintaining protection during virus infection. Lastly, quantitative mathematical models of virus and T cell immunity can be useful to generate predictions regarding which molecular and cellular pathways mediate T cell protection versus pathology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

155949-Thumbnail Image.png

Bowties, barcodes, and DNA origami: a novel approach for paired-chain immune receptor repertoire analysis

Description

There are many biological questions that require single-cell analysis of gene sequences, including analysis of clonally distributed dimeric immunoreceptors on lymphocytes (T cells and B cells) and/or the accumulation of driver/accessory mutations in polyclonal tumors. Lysis of bulk cell populations

There are many biological questions that require single-cell analysis of gene sequences, including analysis of clonally distributed dimeric immunoreceptors on lymphocytes (T cells and B cells) and/or the accumulation of driver/accessory mutations in polyclonal tumors. Lysis of bulk cell populations results in mixing of gene sequences, making it impossible to know which pairs of gene sequences originated from any particular cell and obfuscating analysis of rare sequences within large populations. Although current single-cell sorting technologies can be used to address some of these questions, such approaches are expensive, require specialized equipment, and lack the necessary high-throughput capacity for comprehensive analysis. Water-in-oil emulsion approaches for single cell sorting have been developed but droplet-based single-cell lysis and analysis have proven inefficient and yield high rates of false pairings. Ideally, molecular approaches for linking gene sequences from individual cells could be coupled with next-generation high-throughput sequencing to overcome these obstacles, but conventional approaches for linking gene sequences, such as by transfection with bridging oligonucleotides, result in activation of cellular nucleases that destroy the template, precluding this strategy. Recent advances in the synthesis and fabrication of modular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) origami nanostructures have resulted in new possibilities for addressing many current and long-standing scientific and technical challenges in biology and medicine. One exciting application of DNA nanotechnology is the intracellular capture, barcode linkage, and subsequent sequence analysis of multiple messenger RNA (mRNA) targets from individual cells within heterogeneous cell populations. DNA nanostructures can be transfected into individual cells to capture and protect mRNA for specific expressed genes, and incorporation of origami-specific bowtie-barcodes into the origami nanostructure facilitates pairing and analysis of mRNA from individual cells by high-throughput next-generation sequencing. This approach is highly modular and can be adapted to virtually any two (and possibly more) gene target sequences, and therefore has a wide range of potential applications for analysis of diverse cell populations such as understanding the relationship between different immune cell populations, development of novel immunotherapeutic antibodies, or improving the diagnosis or treatment for a wide variety of cancers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

158492-Thumbnail Image.png

Developing a CRISPR-Mediated Knockout TCR Human T Cell Line for Use in Cloning Antigen-Specific T Cell Receptors

Description

Adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express synthetic antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) has provocative therapeutic applications for treating cancer. However, expressing these synthetic TCRs in a CD4+ T cell line is a challenge. The CD4+ Jurkat T cell

Adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express synthetic antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) has provocative therapeutic applications for treating cancer. However, expressing these synthetic TCRs in a CD4+ T cell line is a challenge. The CD4+ Jurkat T cell line expresses endogenous TCRs that compete for space, accessory proteins, and proliferative signaling, and there is the potential for mixed dimer formation between the α and β chains of the endogenous receptor and that of the synthetic cancer-specific TCRs. To prevent hybridization between the receptors and to ensure the binding affinity measured with flow cytometry analysis is between the tetramer and the TCR construct, a CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing pipeline was developed. The guide RNAs (gRNAs) within the complex were designed to target the constant region of the α and β chains, as they are conserved between TCR clonotypes. To minimize further interference and confer cytotoxic capabilities, gRNAs were designed to target the CD4 coreceptor, and the CD8 coreceptor was delivered in a mammalian expression vector. Further, Golden Gate cloning methods were validated in integrating the gRNAs into a CRISPR-compatible mammalian expression vector. These constructs were transfected via electroporation into CD4+ Jurkat T cells to create a CD8+ knockout TCR Jurkat cell line for broadly applicable uses in T cell immunotherapies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020

161211-Thumbnail Image.png

Van Dijk Thesis

Description

Memory CD8+ T cells protect against secondary viral infections. They develop and maintain exclusively in circulation (e.g. central memory - Tcm) or are excluded from re-circulation (resident memory - Trm). The extracellular ATP receptor P2RX7 promotes both Tcm and Trm

Memory CD8+ T cells protect against secondary viral infections. They develop and maintain exclusively in circulation (e.g. central memory - Tcm) or are excluded from re-circulation (resident memory - Trm). The extracellular ATP receptor P2RX7 promotes both Tcm and Trm generation. High (P2RX7hi) P2RX7-expressing early effector cells show survival, memory and pluripotency genes. Conversely, many terminal effector (TE) and apoptosis genes are upregulated in low (P2RX7lo) P2RX7-expressing cells. Among these genes is the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor Zeb2, which promotes TE differentiation at the expense of the memory cell pool. Given that Zeb2 was higher in P2RX7lo early effector cells, we postulated that Zeb2 ablation would allow P2RX7-deficient CD8+ T cells to skew towards memory subsets. To test this, we used RNP-based CRISPR-Cas9 to knockout Zeb2 in wild type or P2RX7-deficient P14 cells. At the memory timepoint, Zeb2 ablation led to a rescue of the ability of P2RX7-deficient cells to differentiate into the CD62L+ Tcm and CD69hiCD103hi Trm subsets, as well as increase the population of each. Our data suggest that P2RX7 imprints a pro-memory signature that is, to some extent, dependent on the negative regulation of Zeb2.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-12

161212-Thumbnail Image.png

Van Dijk Thesis Presentation

Description

Memory CD8+ T cells protect against secondary viral infections. They develop and maintain exclusively in circulation (e.g. central memory - Tcm) or are excluded from re-circulation (resident memory - Trm). The extracellular ATP receptor P2RX7 promotes both Tcm and Trm

Memory CD8+ T cells protect against secondary viral infections. They develop and maintain exclusively in circulation (e.g. central memory - Tcm) or are excluded from re-circulation (resident memory - Trm). The extracellular ATP receptor P2RX7 promotes both Tcm and Trm generation. High (P2RX7hi) P2RX7-expressing early effector cells show survival, memory and pluripotency genes. Conversely, many terminal effector (TE) and apoptosis genes are upregulated in low (P2RX7lo) P2RX7-expressing cells. Among these genes is the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor Zeb2, which promotes TE differentiation at the expense of the memory cell pool. Given that Zeb2 was higher in P2RX7lo early effector cells, we postulated that Zeb2 ablation would allow P2RX7-deficient CD8+ T cells to skew towards memory subsets. To test this, we used RNP-based CRISPR-Cas9 to knockout Zeb2 in wild type or P2RX7-deficient P14 cells. At the memory timepoint, Zeb2 ablation led to a rescue of the ability of P2RX7-deficient cells to differentiate into the CD62L+ Tcm and CD69hiCD103hi Trm subsets, as well as increase the population of each. Our data suggest that P2RX7 imprints a pro-memory signature that is, to some extent, dependent on the negative regulation of Zeb2.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-12

P2RX7 promotes a pro-memory signature in effector CD8+ T cells dependent on Zeb2 negative regulation

Description

Memory CD8+ T cells protect against secondary viral infections. They develop and maintain exclusively in circulation (e.g. central memory - Tcm) or are excluded from re-circulation (resident memory - Trm). The extracellular ATP receptor P2RX7 promotes both Tcm and Trm

Memory CD8+ T cells protect against secondary viral infections. They develop and maintain exclusively in circulation (e.g. central memory - Tcm) or are excluded from re-circulation (resident memory - Trm). The extracellular ATP receptor P2RX7 promotes both Tcm and Trm generation. High (P2RX7hi) P2RX7-expressing early effector cells show survival, memory and pluripotency genes. Conversely, many terminal effector (TE) and apoptosis genes are upregulated in low (P2RX7lo) P2RX7-expressing cells. Among these genes is the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor Zeb2, which promotes TE differentiation at the expense of the memory cell pool. Given that Zeb2 was higher in P2RX7lo early effector cells, we postulated that Zeb2 ablation would allow P2RX7-deficient CD8+ T cells to skew towards memory subsets. To test this, we used RNP-based CRISPR-Cas9 to knockout Zeb2 in wild type or P2RX7-deficient P14 cells. At the memory timepoint, Zeb2 ablation led to a rescue of the ability of P2RX7-deficient cells to differentiate into the CD62L+ Tcm and CD69hiCD103hi Trm subsets, as well as increase the population of each. Our data suggest that P2RX7 imprints a pro-memory signature that is, to some extent, dependent on the negative regulation of Zeb2.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-12