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Oxidative stress and a high fat diet in rats : an intervention study on the effects of an organometallic compound on enzyme function, inflammatory markers, endotoxins and fasting serum glucose and insulin levels

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Cardiovascular disease has reached epidemic proportions resulting in its ranking as the number one cause of mortality in the Western world. A key player in the pathophysiology of vascular disease is oxidative stress due to free radical accumulation. This intervention

Cardiovascular disease has reached epidemic proportions resulting in its ranking as the number one cause of mortality in the Western world. A key player in the pathophysiology of vascular disease is oxidative stress due to free radical accumulation. This intervention study was conducted to evaluate any potential mediation of oxidative stress using a soil-derived organometallic compound (OMC) with suspected antioxidant properties. A 10-week study was conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 42) fed either a high-fat diet (HFD) consisting of 60% kcal from fat or a standard Chow diet containing only 6% kcals from fat. Rats from each diet group were then subdivided into 3 subgroups (n = 6-10 each) that received 0.0 mg/mL, 0.6 mg/mL or 3.0 mg/mL OMC. Neither the diet nor OMC significantly changed protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in isolated aortas. Plasma levels of the inflammatory marker, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were below detection after the 10-week trial. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), a scavenger of the free radical, superoxide, was not significantly different following HFD although levels of SOD were significantly higher in Chow rats treated with 0.6 mg/mL OMC compared to HFD rats treated with the same dose (p < 0.05). Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were significantly increased following 10 weeks of high fat intake (p < 0.05). This increase in endotoxicity was prevented by the high dose of OMC. HFD significantly increased fasting serum glucose levels at both 6 weeks (p < 0.001) and 10 weeks (p < 0.025) compared to Chow controls. The high dose of OMC significantly prevented the hyperglycemic effects of the HFD in rats at 10 weeks (p = 0.021). HFD-fed rats developed hyperinsulinemia after 10 weeks of feeding (p = 0.009), which was not prevented by OMC. The results of this study indicate that OMC may be an effective strategy to help manage diet-induced hyperglycemia and endotoxemia. However, further research is needed to determine the mechanism by which OMC helps prevent hyperglycemia as measures of inflammation (TNFα) and vascular damage (iNOS) were inconclusive.

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2018

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Evaluation of k4-diimine nickel and cobalt hydrofunctionalization catalysts

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The search for highly active, inexpensive, and earth abundant replacements for existing transition metal catalysts is ongoing. Our group has utilized several redox non-innocent ligands that feature flexible arms with donor substituents. These ligands allow for coordinative flexibility about the

The search for highly active, inexpensive, and earth abundant replacements for existing transition metal catalysts is ongoing. Our group has utilized several redox non-innocent ligands that feature flexible arms with donor substituents. These ligands allow for coordinative flexibility about the metal centre, while the redox non-innocent core helps to overcome the one electron chemistry that is prevalent in first row transition metals. This dissertation focuses on the use of Ph2PPrDI, which can adopt a κ4-configuration when bound to a metal. One reaction that is industrially useful is hydrosilylation, which allows for the preparation of silicones that are useful in the lubrication, adhesive, and cosmetics industries. Typically, this reaction relies on highly active, platinum-based catalysts. However, the high cost of this metal has inspired the search for base metal replacements. In Chapter One, an overview of existing alkene and carbonyl hydrosilylation catalysts is presented. Chapter Two focuses on exploring the reactivity of (Ph2PPrDI)Ni towards carbonyl hydrosilylation, as well as the development of the 2nd generation catalysts, (iPr2PPrDI)Ni and (tBu2PPrDI)Ni. Chapter Three presents a new C-O bond hydrosilylation reaction for the formation of silyl esters. It was found the (Ph2PPrDI)Ni is the most active catalyst in the literature for this transformation, with turnover frequencies of up to 900 h-1. Chapter Four explores the activity and selectivity of (Ph2PPrDI)Ni for alkene hydrosilylation, including the first large scope of gem-olefins for a nickel-based catalyst. Chapter Five explores the chemistry of (Ph2PPrDI)CoH, first through electronic structure determinations and crystallography, followed by an investigation of its reactivity towards alkyne hydroboration and nitrile dihydroboration. (Ph2PPrDI)CoH is the first reported cobalt nitrile dihydroboration catalyst.

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2018