There has been a significant growth in the distributed energy resources (DERs) connected to the distribution networks in recent years. For a distribution system with a high penetration of DERs, a detailed modeling and representation of the distribution network is needed to accurately assess its steady-state and dynamic behavior. In this dissertation, a field-validated model for a real sub-transmission and distribution network is developed, including one of the feeders modeled with the secondary network and loads and solar PV units at their household/user location. A procedure is developed combining data from various sources such as the utility database, geoinformation data, and field measurements to create an accurate network model.
Applying a single line to ground fault to the detailed distribution feeder model, a high voltage swell, with potentially detrimental impacts on connected equipment, is shown in one of the non-faulted phases of the feeder. The reason for this voltage swell is analyzed in detail. It is found that with appropriate control the solar PV units on the feeder can reduce the severity of the voltage swell, but not entirely eliminate it.
For integrated studies of the transmission-distribution (T&D) network, a T&D co-simulation framework is developed, which is capable of power flow as well as dynamic simulations, and supports unbalanced modeling and disturbances in the distribution as well as the sub-transmission system. The power flow co-simulation framework is developed as a module that can be run on a cloud-based platform.
Using the developed framework, the T&D system response is studied for balanced and unbalanced faults on the distribution and sub-transmission system. For some faults the resultant loss of generation can potentially lead to the entire feeder tripping due to high unbalance at the substation. However, it is found that advanced inverter controls may improve the response of the distribution feeders to the faults. The dissertation also highlights the importance of modeling the secondary network for both steady-state and dynamic studies. Lastly, a preliminary investigation is conducted to include different dynamic elements such as grid-forming inverters in a T&D network simulation.
- Detailed Modeling and Simulation of Distribution Systems Using Sub-Transmission-Distribution Co-Simulation