Delamination of solar module interfaces often occurs in field-tested solar modules after decades of service due to environmental stressors such as humidity. In the presence of water, the interfaces between the encapsulant and the cell, glass, and backsheet all experience losses of adhesion, exposing the module to accelerated degradation. Understanding the relation between interfacial adhesion and water content inside photovoltaic modules can help mitigate detrimental power losses. Water content measurements via water reflectometry detection combined with 180° peel tests were used to study adhesion of module materials exposed to damp heat and dry heat conditions. The effect of temperature, cumulative water dose, and water content on interfacial adhesion between ethylene vinyl acetate and (1) glass, (2) front of the cell, and (3) backsheet was studied. Temperature and time decreased adhesion at all these interfaces. Water content in the sample during the measurement showed significant decreases in adhesion for the Backsheet/Ethylene vinyl acetate interface. Water dose showed little effect for the Glass/ Ethylene vinyl acetate and Backsheet/ Ethylene vinyl acetate interfaces, but there was significant adhesion loss with water dose at the front cell busbar/encapsulant interface. Initial tensile test results to monitor the effects of the mechanical properties ethylene vinyl acetate and backsheet showed water content increasing the strength of ethylene vinyl acetate during plastic deformation but no change in the strength of the backsheet properties. This mechanical property change is likely inducing variation along the peel interface to possibly convolute the adhesion measurements conducted or to explain the variation seen for the water saturated and dried peel test sample types.
- The Influence of Water Content and Water Dose on Adhesion of Solar Module Interfaces
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