The electric power system (EPS) is an extremely complex system that has operational interdependencies with the water delivery and treatment system (WDTS). The term water-energy nexus is commonly used to describe the critical interdependencies that naturally exist between the EPS and water distribution systems (WDS). Presented in this work is a framework for simulating interactions between these two critical infrastructure systems in short-term and long-term time-scales. This includes appropriate mathematical models for system modeling and for optimizing control of power system operation with consideration of conditions in the WDS. Also presented is a complete methodology for quantifying the resilience of the two interdependent systems.
The key interdependencies between the two systems are the requirements of water for the cooling cycle of traditional thermal power plants as well as electricity for pumping and/or treatment in the WDS. While previous work has considered the dependency of thermoelectric generation on cooling water requirements at a high-level, this work considers the impact from limitations of cooling water into network simulations in both a short-term operational framework as well as in the long-term planning domain.
The work completed to set-up simulations in operational length time-scales was the development of a simulator that adequately models both systems. This simulation engine also facilitates the implementation of control schemes in both systems that take advantage of the knowledge of operating conditions in the other system. Initial steps for including the influence of anticipated water availability and water rights attainability within the combined generation and transmission expansion planning problem is also presented. Lastly, the framework for determining the infrastructural-operational resilience (IOR) of the interdependent systems is formulated.
Adequately modeling and studying the two systems and their interactions is becoming critically important. This importance is illustrated by the possibility of unforeseen natural or man-made events or by the likelihood of load increase in the systems, either of which has the risk of putting extreme stress on the systems beyond that experienced in normal operating conditions. Therefore, this work addresses these concerns with novel modeling and control/policy strategies designed to mitigate the severity of extreme conditions in either system.