Synthesis and Characterization of 2D and 3D Metal Organic Frameworks

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Among the alternative processes for the traditional distillation, adsorption and membrane separations are the two most promising candidates and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are the new material candidate as adsorbent or membrane due to their high surface area, various pore sizes,

Among the alternative processes for the traditional distillation, adsorption and membrane separations are the two most promising candidates and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are the new material candidate as adsorbent or membrane due to their high surface area, various pore sizes, and highly tunable framework functionality. This dissertation presents an investigation of the formation process of MOF membrane, framework defects, and two-dimensional (2D) MOFs, aiming to explore the answers for three critical questions: (1) how to obtain a continuous MOF membrane, (2) how defects form in MOF framework, and (3) how to obtain isolated 2D MOFs. To solve the first problem, the accumulated protons in the MOF synthesis solution is proposed to be the key factor preventing the continuous growth among Universitetet I Oslo-(UiO)-66 crystals. The hypothesis is verified by the growth reactivation under the addition of deprotonating agent. As long as the protons were sufficiently coordinated by the deprotonating agent, the continuous growth of UiO-66 is guaranteed. Moreover, the modulation effect can impact the coordination equilibrium so that an oriented growth of UiO-66 film was achieved in membrane structures. To find the answer for the second problem, the defect formation mechanism in UiO-66 was investigated and the formation of missing-cluster (MC) defects is attributed to the partially-deprotonated ligands. Experimental results show the number of MC defects is sensitive to the addition of deprotonating agent, synthesis temperature, and reactant concentration. Pore size distribution allows an accurate and convenient characterization of the defects. Results show that these defects can cause significant deviations of its pore size distribution from the perfect crystal. The study of the third questions is based on the established bi-phase synthesis method, a facile synthesis method is adopted for the production of high quality 2D MOFs in large scale. Here, pyridine is used as capping reagent to prevent the interplanar hydrogen bond formation. Meanwhile, formic acid and triethylamine as modulator and deprotonating agent to balance the anisotropic growth, crystallinity, and yield in the 2D MOF synthesis. As a result, high quality 2D zinc-terephthalic acid (ZnBDC) and copper-terephthalic acid (CuBDC) with extraordinary aspect ratio samples were successfully synthesized.