Functional or dynamic responses are prevalent in experiments in the fields of engineering, medicine, and the sciences, but proposals for optimal designs are still sparse for this type of response. Experiments with dynamic responses result in multiple responses taken over a spectrum variable, so the design matrix for a dynamic response have more complicated structures. In the literature, the optimal design problem for some functional responses has been solved using genetic algorithm (GA) and approximate design methods. The goal of this dissertation is to develop fast computer algorithms for calculating exact D-optimal designs.
First, we demonstrated how the traditional exchange methods could be improved to generate a computationally efficient algorithm for finding G-optimal designs. The proposed two-stage algorithm, which is called the cCEA, uses a clustering-based approach to restrict the set of possible candidates for PEA, and then improves the G-efficiency using CEA.
The second major contribution of this dissertation is the development of fast algorithms for constructing D-optimal designs that determine the optimal sequence of stimuli in fMRI studies. The update formula for the determinant of the information matrix was improved by exploiting the sparseness of the information matrix, leading to faster computation times. The proposed algorithm outperforms genetic algorithm with respect to computational efficiency and D-efficiency.
The third contribution is a study of optimal experimental designs for more general functional response models. First, the B-spline system is proposed to be used as the non-parametric smoother of response function and an algorithm is developed to determine D-optimal sampling points of a spectrum variable. Second, we proposed a two-step algorithm for finding the optimal design for both sampling points and experimental settings. In the first step, the matrix of experimental settings is held fixed while the algorithm optimizes the determinant of the information matrix for a mixed effects model to find the optimal sampling times. In the second step, the optimal sampling times obtained from the first step is held fixed while the algorithm iterates on the information matrix to find the optimal experimental settings. The designs constructed by this approach yield superior performance over other designs found in literature.
- Optimal design of experiments for functional responses