Photovoltaic (PV) systems are affected by converter losses, partial shading and other mismatches in the panels. This dissertation introduces a sub-panel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) architecture together with an integrated CMOS current sensor circuit on a chip to reduce the mismatch effects, losses and increase the efficiency of the PV system. The sub-panel MPPT increases the efficiency of the PV during the shading and replaces the bypass diodes in the panels with an integrated MPPT and DC-DC regulator. For the integrated MPPT and regulator, the research developed an integrated standard CMOS low power and high common mode range Current-to-Digital Converter (IDC) circuit and its application for DC-DC regulator and MPPT. The proposed charge based CMOS switched-capacitor circuit directly digitizes the output current of the DC-DC regulator without an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and the need for high-voltage process technology. Compared to the resistor based current-sensing methods that requires current-to-voltage circuit, gain block and ADC, the proposed CMOS IDC is a low-power efficient integrated circuit that achieves high resolution, lower complexity, and lower power consumption. The IDC circuit is fabricated on a 0.7 um CMOS process, occupies 2mm x 2mm and consumes less than 27mW. The IDC circuit has been tested and used for boost DC-DC regulator and MPPT for photo-voltaic system. The DC-DC converter has an efficiency of 95%. The sub-module level power optimization improves the output power of a shaded panel by up to 20%, compared to panel MPPT with bypass diodes.