This thesis research focuses on phylogenetic and functional studies of microbial communities in deep-sea water, an untapped reservoir of high metabolic and genetic diversity of microorganisms. The presence of photosynthetic cyanobacteria and diatoms is an interesting and unexpected discovery during a 16S ribosomal rRNA-based community structure analyses for microbial communities in the deep-sea water of the Pacific Ocean. Both RT-PCR and qRT-PCR approaches were employed to detect expression of the genes involved in photosynthesis of photoautotrophic organisms. Positive results were obtained and further proved the functional activity of these detected photosynthetic microbes in the deep-sea. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data was obtained, integrated, and analyzed from deep-sea microbial communities, including both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, from four different deep-sea sites ranging from the mesopelagic to the pelagic ocean. The RNA/DNA ratio was employed as an index to show the strength of metabolic activity of deep-sea microbes. These taxonomic and functional analyses of deep-sea microbial communities revealed a `defensive' life style of microbial communities living in the deep-sea water. Pseudoalteromonas sp.WG07 was subjected to transcriptomic analysis by application of RNA-Seq technology through the transcriptomic annotation using the genomes of closely related surface-water strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 and sediment strain Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913. The transcriptome survey and related functional analysis of WG07 revealed unique features different from TAC125 and SM9913 and provided clues as to how it adapted to its environmental niche. Also, a comparative transcriptomic analysis of WG07 revealed transcriptome changes between its exponential and stationary growing phases.