Effects of vinegar on colonic fermentation and glycemia

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ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population,

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which vinegar has been shown to reduce postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Fifteen male and female subjects were recruited, ages 20-60y, who had no prior history of gastrointestinal (GI) disease or resections impacting normal GI function, were non-smokers, were non-vegetarian/vegan, were not taking any medications known to alter (glucose) metabolism, and were free of chronic disease including diabetes. Subjects were instructed to avoid exercise, alcohol and smoking the day prior to their trials and to consume a standardized, high-carbohydrate dinner meal the eve prior. There was a one-week washout period per subject between appointments. Breath hydrogen, serum insulin and capillary glucose were assessed over 3 hours after a high-starch breakfast meal to evaluate the impact of preprandial supplementation with ACV or placebo (water). Findings confirmed the antiglycemic effects of ACV as documented in previous studies, with significantly lower mean blood glucose concentrations observed during ACV treatment compared to the placebo at 30 min (p=0.003) and 60 min (p=0.005), and significantly higher mean blood glucose concentrations at 180 min (p=0.045) postprandial. No significant differences in insulin concentrations between treatments. No significant differences were found between treatments (p>0.05) for breath hydrogen; however, a trend was observed between the treatments at 180 min postprandial where breath hydrogen concentration was visually perceived as being higher with ACV treatment compared to the placebo. Therefore, this study failed to support the hypothesis that preprandial ACV ingestion produces a higher rate of colonic fermentation within a 3 hour time period following a high-carbohydrate meal. Due to variations in experiment duration noted in other literature, an additional study of similar nature with an expanded specimen collections period, well beyond 3 hours, is warranted.