Assessing cardiovascular disease risk factors among overweight and obese Mexican-American adults

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Mexican Americans have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association of hyperglycemia with traditional CVD risk factors in this population has been established,

Mexican Americans have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association of hyperglycemia with traditional CVD risk factors in this population has been established, but there is limited data regarding other non-traditional CVD risk factors. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate CVD risk among Mexican Americans by measuring concentrations of lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cholesterol in low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions. Eighty overweight/obese Mexican-American adults participating in the Maricopa Insulin Resistance Initiative were randomly selected from each of the following four groups (n = 20 per group): nomolipidemic
ormoglycemic controls (NC), dyslipidemic
ormoglycemic (DN), dyslipidemic/prediabetic (DPD) and dyslipidemic/diabetic (DD). Total cholesterol (TC) was 30% higher among DD than in NC participants (p<0.0001). The DPD group had 27% and 12% higher LDL-C concentrations than the NC and DN groups, respectively. Similarly, LDL-C was 29% and 13% higher in DD than in NC and DN participants (p=0.013). An increasing trend was observed in %10-year CVD risk with increasing degree of hyperglycemia (p<0.0001). The NC group had less cholesterol in sdLDL particles than dyslipidemic groups, regardless of glycemic status (p<0.0001). When hyperglycemia was part of the phenotype (DPD and DD), there was a greater proportion of total and HDL-C in sHDL particles in dyslipidemic individuals than in NC (p=0.023; p<0.0001; respectively). Percent 10-year CVD risk was positively correlated with triglyceride (TG) (r=0.384, p<0.0001), TC (r=0.340, p<0.05), cholesterol in sdLDL(r=0.247; p<0.05), and TC to HDL-C ratio (r=0.404, p<0.0001), and negatively correlated with HDL-C in intermediate and large HDL(r=-0.38, p=0.001; r=0.34, p=0.002, respectively). The TC/HDL-C was positively correlated with cholesterol in sdLDL particles (r=0.698, p<0.0001) and HDL-C in sHDL particles (r=0.602, p<0.0001), and negatively correlated with cholesterol in small (r=-0.35, p=0.002), intermediate (r=-0.91, p<0.0001) and large (r=-0.84, p<0.0001) HDL particles, and HDL-C in the large HDL particles (r=-0.562, p<0.0001). No significant association was found between %10-year CVD risk and hsCRP. Collectively, these results corroborate that dyslipidemic Mexican-American adults have higher CVD risk than normolipidemic individuals. Hyperglycemia may further affect CVD risk by modulating cholesterol in LDL and HDL subfractions.