To extend the lifetime of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS), emerging process techniques are being proposed to conquer the manufacturing difficulties. New structures and materials are proposed with superior electrical properties to traditional CMOS, such as strain technology and feedback field-effect transistor (FB-FET). To continue the design success and make an impact on leading products, advanced circuit design exploration must begin concurrently with early silicon development. Therefore, an accurate and scalable model is desired to correctly capture those effects and flexible to extend to alternative process choices. For example, strain technology has been successfully integrated into CMOS fabrication to improve transistor performance but the stress is non-uniformly distributed in the channel, leading to systematic performance variations. In this dissertation, a new layout-dependent stress model is proposed as a function of layout, temperature, and other device parameters. Furthermore, a method of layout decomposition is developed to partition the layout into a set of simple patterns for model extraction. These solutions significantly reduce the complexity in stress modeling and simulation. On the other hand, semiconductor devices with self-feedback mechanisms are emerging as promising alternatives to CMOS. Fe-FET was proposed to improve the switching by integrating a ferroelectric material as gate insulator in a MOSFET structure. Under particular circumstances, ferroelectric capacitance is effectively negative, due to the negative slope of its polarization-electrical field curve. This property makes the ferroelectric layer a voltage amplifier to boost surface potential, achieving fast transition. A new threshold voltage model for Fe-FET is developed, and is further revealed that the impact of random dopant fluctuation (RDF) can be suppressed. Furthermore, through silicon via (TSV), a key technology that enables the 3D integration of chips, is studied. TSV structure is usually a cylindrical metal-oxide-semiconductors (MOS) capacitor. A piecewise capacitance model is proposed for 3D interconnect simulation. Due to the mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) among materials, thermal stress is observed in TSV process and impacts neighboring devices. The stress impact is investigated to support the interaction between silicon process and IC design at the early stage.
- Predictive modeling for extremely scaled CMOS and post silicon devices
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by Chi-Chao Wang