Whether legal, banned or unregulated, states and nations are reconsidering the morality and legality of the practice of surrogacy. Though many advocate for the absolute right to this practice, there are serious ethical concerns about the practice of surrogacy. Using critical theory, this thesis examines the relationships between the systems and people who have fostered a space where assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) thrive. A theoretical analysis of Karl Marx and his literature on women and reproduction adds more comprehensive depth to the last four decades of literature on surrogacy. I respond to Marx and contemporary researchers with a recommendation: surrogacy should be regulated (and not necessarily banned) across states and nations. I also suggest that future discussions should point to market-inalienability as a tool to guide discussion on the state of surrogacy. I argue surrogacy is synonymous with purchasing children. If we are able to have clearer conversations about the ways in which children are treated as commodities, then we can start to understand the ways in which other forms of conception and childbearing practices are also problematic and exploitative.
- Commodifying the Womb: Ethical Concerns of Assisted Reproductive Technologies through a Marxist Lens
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